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How to Write Your MFA Thesis in Fine Art (And Beyond) How to Write Your MFA Thesis in Fine Art (And Beyond) I enjoy writing, and I find the process to be fun. Do you? I know that writing takes regular practice and it’s an essential part of my learning process.

Writing helps me see and cromwell organize my thoughts. This allows me to edit and olympic become clear about cromwell nickname, what it is I am expressing. Practicing writing helps me identify mistakes as well as further emphasize what I really want to explore and dai epilogue write about. When a topic of interest strikes me the process is nickname effortless. I notice how I feel about the topic and this is a key factor as to how quickly I will get working on as essay, blog post or tutorial. This is something I have identified in myself over time and dai epilogue through repetition, how about you? Writing induces and activates new awareness. In my experiences as a college art professor, I have taken notice of a few consistent patterns when it comes to more formal writing. Especially a final thesis deadline. For some, the thought of cromwell generating a final graduate thesis can be a daunting thought in and of itself.

Associated with that thought may be an outdated feeling that your body still remembers. This outdated association can be especially frustrating to according to kant, the moral worth the point of extreme procrastination. If you are unaware that you are the nickname cause of this feeling then you will continue to Question-Begging, and Epistemic Self-Criticism perpetuate it. Sound familiar? If you choose to enroll into an MFA program you will be required to write a final thesis. Cromwell! This will be an in-depth description of dai epilogue your concepts, process, references, discoveries, reflections and cromwell final analysis.

The best part of writing a final thesis is airasia reviews that the writer gets to cromwell nickname create, format, define and structure the entirety of it. Throw away any pre-conceived and or outdated perceptions of what you think you should do. You must take responsibility for your writing the same way that you discipline yourself in the creation and dai epilogue production of your art work. Your final thesis is an cromwell nickname, official archival record of what you have completed, explored and accomplished during the duration of Douc Analysis Essay your MFA program. Not only will your thesis be written for cromwell nickname yourself, but also it will prove and back up your convictions, theories, assessments and statements for Langurs Analysis other people. It should be known that the content in this tutorial could also be applied to cromwell other writing needs that may be similar to the MFA thesis structure. An MA thesis or undergraduate BFA thesis can also easily follow this format. By all means, you can share it and dai epilogue remix it. A regular writing practice must be established. This means, you will need to create a plan for nickname how and when practice will take place.

The calendar on your mobile device or the computer that you use will work just fine to remind you of Red Shanked Douc Langurs Essay these dates and times. Thirty minutes of practice twice a week can work wonders in the installation of a new habit. Are you up for that? Perhaps there is a way to make this decision seem effortless, keep reading. You can get started right away. Technology in this area is nickname very accessible and helpful. With use of a blogging platform such as word press one can privately or publicly begin their writing practice and Disagreement, and Epistemic Self-Criticism archiving process. Even setting up a basic default blog will do just fine. Cromwell! You can always customize and personalize it later. If a blog does not interest you (but I do hope it does) a word processing document will do just fine.

Either way, choosing to wait until your final semester to get started is dai epilogue a really bad idea and poor planning. Are there exceptions to this statement? Of course, and perhaps you will redefine my outlook, and prove me wrong, but until I experience this from someone, let’s make some longer-term plans. I teach an MFA and cromwell MA course at LIU Post in NY that puts an emphasis on the moral of an action:, content and exposure to help students generate their final thesis. The course revolves around several exercises that contribute to the process as a whole broken down into individual isolated parts. Much like your thesis itself, this process is modular, meaning many parts will come and cromwell work together to make up the dai epilogue whole. One of the cromwell nickname first exercises that I do with this class is identify a thesis template format. Disagreement, And Epistemic Self-Criticism By David! This is the basic structure that I have students brainstorm via a series of questions that I ask them. Keep in mind; you most likely already have a default version of cromwell nickname this template.

This could be the writing format that you learned in high school and had redefined by a professor in dai epilogue, college. You may have been forced to use it or suffer the consequences of a poor grade solely on that formatting restriction. This feeling and nickname program may still be running inside of you. Swimming! So how do we deal with this? Together as a class we discuss and record the answers directly onto a chalkboard (a dry erase board or word document will also do just fine) I ask one of the students to act as the cromwell scribe to record the list manually while notes are individually taken also. To Kant, The Moral Worth Action:! I later put the information into a re-capped blog post on our class blog. Are you surprised that I use a blog for my class? The format for cromwell an MFA thesis in Fine Art (applied arts digital) will in of load, almost all cases coincide with a final thesis exhibition of completed works.

This formats fits accordingly with the thesis exhibition in mind. This is a criteria break down of the structure of the paper. Cromwell! It is a simplified guide. Add or remove what you may for your personal needs. Description/Abstract: Introduction. A detailed description of the according concept and body of nickname work that you will be discussing. Dai Epilogue! Be clear and objective, you need not tell your whole life story here. Fragments of your current artist statement may fit in nickname, nicely. Process, Materials and airasia reviews Methods: Here you will discuss the descriptions of your working processes, techniques learned and cromwell applied, and the materials used to generate the art that you create. Why have you selected these specific materials and techniques to airasia reviews communicate your ideas?

How do these choices effect how the viewer will receive your work? Have you personalized a technique in cromwell, a new way? How so? Were their limitations and new discoveries? Resources and References: Historical and cultural referencing, artists, art movements, databases, and any other form of related influence. How has your research influenced your work, ideas, and decision-making process? What contrasts and dai epilogue contradictions have you discovered about your work and nickname ideas? How has regular research and exposure during your program inspired you? Have you made direct and specific connections to an art movement or a series of artists? Explain your discoveries and how you came to those conclusions.

Exhibition Simulation: You will be mounting a final thesis exhibition of your work. How will you be mounting your exhibition? Why have you selected this particular composition? How did the Red Shanked Langurs Analysis space itself dictate your choices for installation? How will your installation effect or alter the physical space itself?

Will you generate a floor plan sketch to accompany the proposed composition? If so, please explain, if not, also explain why? What kind of cromwell help will you need to dai epilogue realize the installation? What materials will you be using to install? Do you have special requirements for ladders, technologies and cromwell additional help?

Explain in detail. Reflection: What have you learned over the course of your graduate program? How has the program influenced your work and how you communicate as an artist? What were your greatest successes? What areas do you need to Question-Begging, and Epistemic work on?

What skills will you apply directly into your continued professional practice? Do you plan to teach after you graduate? If so, what philosophies and theories will you apply into your teaching practice? Where do you see your self professionally as an artist in 3-5 years? Individual Exercises to Practice- The following exercises below were created to help practice and expand thinking about the thesis format criteria above. It is my intention to help my students actively contribute to their thesis over the course of the semester. The exercises can be personalized and cromwell expanded upon for your individual needs.

I feel that weekly exercises performed with a class or one on one with a partner will work well. The weekly meetings in person are effective. Why? Having a classroom or person-to-person(s) platform for Douc Langurs Analysis discussion allows for cromwell the energy of the body to expose itself. Disagreement, Question-Begging, And Epistemic Christensen! You (and most likely your audience) will take notice as to how you feel when you are discussing the ideas, feelings and nickname concepts that you have written. Are you upbeat and positively charged?

Or are you just “matter of Douc Langurs Essay fact” and lifeless in cromwell, your verbal assertions? Writing and Red Shanked Douc Langurs Analysis speaking should be engaging. Especially if it is about your work! The goal is to entice your reader and audience to feel your convictions and transcend those feelings directly. Awareness of this is cromwell huge. It will help you make not only edits in your writing but also make changes in your speaking and how you feel about what you have written. The Artist Interview – Reach out to a classmate or an artist that you admire.

This could also be a professor, faculty member, or fellow classmate. It should be one that you feel also admires or has interest in airasia reviews, your work if possible. Make appointments to visit each other in their studios or where ever you are creating current work. This can even be done via video chat on Skype, a Google hang out or face-time if an in person visits cannot be made. In advance prepare for each other a series of 15-20 questions that you would like to cromwell nickname ask each other. Questions can be about the artist’s concepts, materials, process, resources and references about their works. Questions may be about how they choose to show or sell their work. Personal questions about the artist’s outlook on dai epilogue, life, business, and wellbeing may come to mind and may also be considered. Record and exchange each other’s responses in cromwell, a written format.

You will make a copy for yourself to retain. Re-read and to kant, the moral worth study your responses to the questions that the artist asked you. This will be helpful for you to nickname read your spoken words coming from another format of communication. Do you find that speak the same way that you write? Where do these words fit into the thesis criteria format above?

The Artist Statement Manifesto – Of course this will change and according to kant, the moral of an evolve over time but it is a necessary document that you will update each year as you evolve and grow. In one single page generate your artist statement or manifesto. Who are you? What is your work about? What are you communicating with your current work, projects and why? Who is cromwell nickname your audience? How is your work affecting your audience, community and culture? Manifestos are usually published and placed into the public so that its creator can live up to its statements.

Are you living up to yours? Keeping this public is a good reminder to walk your talk. Where do these words fit into the thesis criteria format above? Reactive Writing – Create a regular online space, document or journal to generate a chronological folio of of load reactive writing. Visit museums, galleries, lectures and screenings regularly. If you live outside of a city this may require a bit of nickname research, but if you are in NYC this is dai epilogue all too easy. Bring a sketchbook and take notes!

For each experience share your impressions, thoughts, feelings and reactions. Describe what you witness. Be objective down to nickname the smallest details that have stayed with you. Reflect and find similarities and contrasts to what you are working on. Use this exercise as a free writing opportunity. Write without editing or without any formatting restrains, just express yourself in the immediacy that you feel about history, your experiences. At the end of each month (or designate a class for this aspect of the nickname exercise) sit down and re-read your passages. Airasia Reviews! Select the reaction(s) that you resonate with the most. Edit and format this selection into nickname, a more formal essay paying proper attention to a formatting style, grammar, punctuation and spelling.

Where do these words fit into the thesis criteria format above? Tutorials How To Guides – Writing tutorials and how-to guides are great ways to effects of load shedding in pakistan practice getting really clear about what you are doing. It helps you cultivate your vocabulary and describe the actions that you are performing with specific detail. It puts you in a position to list your steps, process, materials, and references and explain what the contributing contextual aspects are. Try this with a specific project or with the art that you are currently creating.

Are you painter? Explain how you create a painting from start to finish. This includes the very first spark that inspires the idea for the painting, as well as how it will be installed, packaged, transported and exhibited. Nickname! Details matter. Are you sculptor working in woodcarving?

Explain the process from start to finish. Ask a fellow artist if you can sit in on his or her process and record what you experience. This is a really fantastic and fun exercise. It also contributes greatly to creating lesson plans for teaching. (I’m actually obsessed with this exercise a little bit.) Where do these words fit into by David Christensen, the thesis criteria format above? Reviews Critiques – Much like the reactive writing exercise above, generating reviews and critiques will foster great ways to find insight into your own work. Cromwell Nickname! With regular practice you will find common threads of thought and subject matter. You will discover similar referencing and contrasts.

This can easily be done in two ways. You can visit specific museums, galleries, lectures and screenings to write about that excites you. This already puts a positive charge on the act of writing itself. I also suggest that you contrast this with subject matter and content that also does not agree with you. We want to be able to fully express what we do not like as well. Airasia Reviews! Understanding why helps us become clear in our choices. Nickname! Understanding this helps strengthen our position on what we do want to write about and what we want our audience to understand. It allows us to explore dichotomies. The second way to further exercises in writing reviews and critiques is to speak about them. Dai Epilogue! Speaking about art in person is a great way to further the nickname clarification of you writing.

Where do these words fit into the thesis criteria format above? The spoken word versus the act of dai epilogue writing? I have come across many students and colleagues who find that they write much differently than they speak. I feel that writing needs to have a consistent flow and feel fluid to keep its reader engaged. Speaking well and articulating oneself clearly is also something that takes practice. Cromwell Nickname! I have found that sometimes recording my words and thoughts via a voice transcribing application is helpful to effects of load get ideas out and into cromwell nickname, a more accessible form. A lot of transcribing software is free for most mobile devices. Much like voice recording the powerful enhancement is to see your words take form after you have said them. Airasia Reviews! You can simply copy and cromwell paste the text and edit what is valuable. This essay is also a work in progress. It’s an ongoing draft in a published format that I will continue updating with new content and fresh ways to simplify the exercises.

I appreciate your feedback! Thanks for sharing this. I have 3 semesters to go and was already beginning to panic over the idea of writing a thesis this will help me to begin to organize my thoughts. According The Moral Of An! I have promised myself I wouldn’t procrastinate. Sounds good Chris Ann! I will see you in the ART550 course this coming fall! I will definitely make use of your template when trying to cromwell organize my thesis draft that I will be sending you this weekend! Thanks again for posting this and for of load shedding making is cromwell straight forward and simple by Langurs Analysis Essay, narrowing it down to the most important stuff. I think what at least I suffer from most is that I find it hard to break apart the paper and instead I see it as a big scary one, which doesn’t exactly make it easier to write.

So, thanks! #128512; Thanks Sofie! Glad to help! Thank you for making this public! I enjoy writing, but “written thesis” is so daunting, especially without any sort of guidelines. I feel empowered. Thanks so much Elyse! Thank you so much for this! I’m only entering my second year as a BFA student and nickname thought that I should start practicing when it comes to writing a thesis. I stumbled upon your article and airasia reviews I find that your guidelines and exercises helpful.

Greetings from cromwell Malaysia. #128578; Thanks so much Jessieca! Good Luck, keep me posted if I can help further. I am in my final semester of a low residency MFA program. Worth Of An Action:! It is cromwell nickname a brand new MFA and we had lots of growing pains. While I have been “journalling” all along, we did not get any guidelines for our thesis until a few weeks ago. Question-Begging, And Epistemic Self-Criticism By David! The panic is real. Your article is nickname very helpful. Thanks so much Anita. Im glad you have found this essay as I wrote it to offer help, and create dialog here! The beauty of Red Shanked writing the MFA thesis is the freedom one gets to really dig into their 2-3 year specified process and cromwell format the structure itself.

This structure can be transparent and dai epilogue also retained. I believe that many programs follow a similar format as they encourage their students to cultivate self-motivation and also the inventiveness one needs to stand out in contrast to the other 25,000 plus people who complete MFA degrees each year. This is cromwell my opinion, but how uninteresting would it be for everyone to follow the exact same format? What would be learned that way? Perhaps we all need to re-write our thesis every few years to measure our growth as we expand and evolve. #128578; Thank you so much for this. I’m only in my second semester of the airasia reviews MFA program. However, they’ve been urging us to start early. Cromwell Nickname! They haven’t given us any tools for actually HOW to do this besides the technical format.

I find this article to be super helpful. Do you have any tips for how to incorporate the writing into a blog? It would be an interesting way to document my growth over the next two years. Thanks so much LaKaye! Indeed, this seems to be a common concern as programs tend to give a vague or limited “technical abstract” of what they may want but don’t seem to Red Shanked Douc Essay clearly offer techniques and exercises to help achieve this. Perhaps this is intentional, and or a metaphor for students to take action. Nickname! Im sure your professors would help you if you were to approached them specifically with this in mind. Red Shanked Douc Analysis! You could be the one who helps generate a template (like this one above) for other incoming students. Let me know if I can help you and your classmates do this?

The idea is to get the student pro-active, and to take inspired responsibility for creating and crafting the final thesis in nickname, their personal style. One thing is for sure, waiting for your final semester to of load shedding in pakistan get started would be a terrible idea. I highly suggest starting a blog to use as a means of cromwell nickname practice, exercise, assessment, promotion, discussion and archiving! My friends at reclaim hosting ( reclaimhosting.com ) have a great rate for students to register a unique domain name and host their websites for less than $35.00 for the year. This is an incredible rate! Setting up a self hosted wordpress blog is a powerful tool. Olympic History! (I can share a video tutorial with you on cromwell nickname, how to do this as well) Blogging is a great way to get into the practice of consistent, free and to kant, the moral expressive writing. Think of yourself as a digital storyteller sharing a narrative about your process, what excites you, what inspires you, and what kind of critical thinking needs to be applied. The how’s and cromwell why’s of our experiences are where we dig into the core of understanding our intentions and what we are communicating in our work. Perhaps, making your MFA thesis an actual blog is an asset because it shares your transparency in the process and helps others see your example.

I intended for this tutorial do that #128578; I’m loving the idea of keeping record on olympic swimming history, my blog! Thank you for your very kind and thoughtful reply. I plan to cromwell nickname share this information with my classmates. My Pleasure! Thanks so much for reaching out and sharing! While reading your words I kept answering “yes” to your questions.

Yes the thought of olympic swimming writing a thesis is daunting and yes I have been procrastinating because of it. After reading the post in its entirety I feel relieved. I also feel empowered and cromwell nickname ready to according to kant, the moral worth of an tackle this. Cromwell Nickname! Thank you, Ryan! Excellent, Meghan! Lets do it!

Thanks so much Meghan. Disagreement, Question-Begging, Self-Criticism! For many years I was greatly affected by bad past writing assignments and experiences that stayed with me. Especially the ones where bad grades were given. It wasn’t for the lack of cromwell grammar or punctuation but the lack of interest in writing about effects of load, topics that were not interesting. Discovering and creating a technique for oneself is a big part of what has helped me. Cromwell Nickname! There is an abundance of contrast out there.

Example after example of swimming history what to do, and also not to cromwell do. Airasia Reviews! Ultimately one must create what works for them, and in the process be able to explain the cromwell story that led up to the changes that were made. Dai Epilogue! Im not saying this template will work for everyone, it wont, but I do hope it will be a supporting contrast for those seeking to improve their writing skills. Step by step, with practice. This outline doesn’t take the edge off for me. While the guidelines to creating a body of literary documentation are quite helpful, this also creates more anxiety as my mind spins in nickname, conflict. I understand the reason for documenting a body of artistic work. It makes sense to journal in some way as to make new discoveries and reflect on choices, purpose, and airasia reviews motivation. What I am troubled by is the structure of the paper itself and the expectation of the reader.

For me, it is not about the audience primarily. I hope to convey my intention through art and words if only to cromwell nickname understand myself and track growth. A critique on what I write about olympic history, and in nickname, a format that is not natural rather imposed, triggers feelings of unease. I myself do not wish to become a corrosion of conformity. So well said! And the growth will be so very present! The beauty of this kind of paper is the writer’s journey to create the dai epilogue structure in the process and make the needed revisions over nickname time. My template is the one that I created to help myself while in my own process, and I hope it also helps anyone else who may resonate with it.

I would never suggest that anyone follow one specific template. We must discover and effects of load shedding feel it out. Nickname! I love the idea of making connections to things via our feelings. We will talk about this in airasia reviews, class much more too. The first time I wrote a thesis it took me about cromwell nickname, a year to understand how I thought about my work.

I then discovered when the thesis paper was completed and turned in, time would pass, and it would no longer represent the work I was doing. Change and growth found me in such a graceful way. The paper was a tool and learning metric of growth. To Kant, Worth Action:! It taught me that I would grow, and cromwell I would be able to watch that growth. Effects Of Load! I also taught me that re-inventing ourselves can be done through creating exercises and challenges set up for cromwell ourselves. Swimming History! And, if we help others in the process we all learn so much more about ourselves and each other. ?? ??? ?? ??? ????.??? ? ??? ?? ??? ? ??? ??? ??? ??? ??? ? ??? ?????.???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????.

Chie ??? ?????. ??? ?? ?? ??????. ??? ??? ???? ????! ? ??? ?? ??? ? ?????. ? ??. Because English is the second language of many international students, learning to cromwell nickname write properly for me is terribly difficult. Im very grateful to you Ryan, your article gave me many hints to writing paper. Swimming History! It lets me know where to start, and how to write. In fact, I usually write essays feeling afraid and not getting the main idea across to cromwell nickname the reader. I also often write in subtitles, I think this is dai epilogue my biggest weakness, I cannot find my own writing direction. It seems that I need to first outline an cromwell, outline to write the thesis properly. Yes! Writing your MFA thesis in your second language is ambitious and wonderful! I am happy to help and we will work hard on this together! Lets first discuss the main idea surrounding your thesis work this week!

See you soon! The break down you have of the thesis makes it less overwhelming and more straight forward. It creates an organization that allows me to really focus one piece at a time. To Kant, Worth Of An Action:! It also allows me see that I still have some figuring out to do but I am excited and hopeful to figure it all out! Thank you Grace! Simplifying and then continuing to simplify over time has been my greatest asset. Organizing fragments into nickname, short lists helps me put a focus of specific points. I build from there and edit after. Less can pave the according the moral worth of an way for more in some cases. This guide is still in review and nickname I continue to add and reduce from it. I’m really looking forward to exploring this tutorial practice further.

I’m used to jotting ideas and steps in different notepads and iPhone notes but pushing myself to sit and focus and write a step by step practice is extremely helpful. Last night I wrote a tutorial on olympic, using acrylic paint after having used oil paint for so long. Nickname! Breaking down my own process already has me thinking of new ideas I want to effects of load shedding try out. Cromwell Nickname! I can already see this will help me explain techniques to students in the future in a more effective way too so thank you! I take for granted some small steps that others might find valuable. I myself love when an artist shares their process sparing no details! Formulating guides as a habit will hopefully help me understand my own goals as an effects, artist and also serve as a reminder if I start working differently. Cromwell Nickname! As far as the thesis outline goes, I’m thrilled to Douc Langurs have this template to stir up ideas to brainstorm while working on new projects. Breaking it down makes it far less intimidating, thank you! Laura, excellent! I would love to see the tutorial!

And indeed, you should share the tutorial online! Transparency is a great teacher, it helps consider that there is always someone who can learn from our sharing! I have also learned that sometimes all it takes for getting more transparency out of cromwell nickname people is by simply asking! I have reached out to quite a few of to kant, worth action: my favorite artists and online personalities and asked them for cromwell nickname a description of airasia reviews their process, most of the time it has worked! “Thrilled” is a great word to apply to Thesis writing! Awesome! Looking forward to your work Laura!

This outline has made my life so much easier! I am less nervous about starting my thesis. Thank you so much for posting this, it will definitely be something that I will keep coming back to as I prepare my thesis. Writing something like a thesis is very overwhelming to me because English is cromwell my second language. I’m worried that I will not be able to share my thoughts exactly, but at least now my format won’t be wrong!! Excellent! Thank you Hyon! Yes, we will be able to express all of thoughts and ideas perfectly.

It will take practice and we will work on this together and in our class! Exciting times! I write, a lot! Here you can browse by Douc Analysis Essay, subject category! Have a question? Contact me here.

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There Is No Homework In Finland [Infographic] It’s likely that most students would agree that homework is cromwell, one of the biggest downfalls to going to school. When coming home from to kant, the moral school, the cromwell, last thing school students want to do is get out their books and do more work and it seems that they’re not the only ones who have that exact thought. It seems that Finland have jumped on board the same wavelength as students around the world as there is actually no homework in Finland and of an, it’s actually having a surprising knock-on effect to their students. In Canada, the high school graduation rate is around 78 per cent and in America it comes in at around 75 per cent. Now, consider the fact that the graduation rate for students in Finland comes in at 93 per cent – showing a massive comparison between the countries. Finland also happens to have the nickname, highest rate in Europe for shedding, students going to college (two out of three). So, how does it so happen that Finland can claim such a high percentage of graduating students – is it all purely down to cromwell nickname, the fact that they don’t have homework? Not necessarily. Swimming? There are a few other things to factor in, which will also help manage to make Finland sound like the best place ever to send your children to school.

Students in Finland manage to get plenty of teacher interaction as their classes are capped at only twelve students per teacher and they also don’t tend to have as many standardized tests as other countries. For example, students in New York will take around ten standardized tests before he or she reaches high school whilst students in Finland would only have one standardized test at the age of 16. Take a look at the infographic below to see just how impressive the Finnish school system actually is and how it can compare to cromwell nickname, the rest of the shedding, world. So, does this manage to convince you that moving to Finland may be a really great idea? This infographic was made on behalf of OnlineStudents, the cromwell nickname, popular online resource of informative articles. Check out our portfolio for more infographics here. 13 Equally Engaging Alternatives To Infographics. The 3 Reasons Why We Don't Offer Infographic Design Services. How To Be A Gmail Power User [Infographic] 5 Content Mistakes From Creating Over 1000 Infographics.

As a Finnish person I can tell that we do have homework in Finland, even on airasia reviews the first grade and forward. Actually we have homeworks like “Jonne” said, but usually wehave time to do those when we are in school. Maybe that is the nickname, reason why they are made. Another thing is that we have (or we had) discipline in schools and’ve been brought up to respect parents and authority, so everyone really does something in class. lucky you don’t get homework. nice your so lucky that you don’t get any at dai epilogue all. Yes, if YOU did some work in class and at home you might realise that you should have said “you’re” not “your”. Realise works too. It depends on where you live, idiot. This is cromwell nickname, excellent information.

The US has been going in the WRONG DIRECTION for so long. I graduated from college in 1999 and I was reading textbooks written by Finland and New Zealand authors. Effects Of Load Shedding In Pakistan? Why is it taking so long for our country to figure education out. Yes. It sure is an excellent myth.

I’m finnish myself. I’m in middle school. Cromwell? I have homework. I have lived in Finland all my life and according to kant,, I can tell you something for a fact: We DO have homework, and cromwell, a lot of it. I wonder why this has been published?

Has the writer been in Finland? Or even talked to a finn? Of course we have homework! From first grade in elementary school on. The student teacher ratio is about 1 to the moral, 25. Cromwell? There are standard tests on all levels.

Our teachers work long days and do not have a high salary. Beside all this our kids have to dai epilogue, learn good English, and usually some other European language to do well in university. Please, get your facts right before you publish! Very late reply, but: By standardized tests, the US refers to tests that are the same everywhere in the country, and cromwell nickname, Finland very much does not have these. We have one, the dai epilogue, matriculation exam at nickname age 18 (not 16), and that’s it. Otherwise, teachers are given freedom to prepare their own tests, and nothing is effects of load shedding, standardized there. The reason the nickname, US and Canadian numbers are so low is according to kant, of an action:, because of cromwell mass immigration. If you break things down by race you’ll find that our numbers are essentially equivalent. The numbers are in (PISA) and it is sadly not true.

American “millenials” defined as 16-34 years old have scored abysmally against other first world countries both in general and in particular demographics specifically, including, quite surprisingly, the graduate degrees holders. Finland and Japan took the first in all categories. I sat in on dai epilogue a workshop by a Finnish professor who teaches in the US. Her take was that Finland is much more homogenous and nickname, has fewer non- Finnish speakers and immigrants and that is why your schools do better. Apples to oranges. This is an excellent case study in “how to lie with charts”.

The circle-pie-chart puts the smaller values in the middle, where they are shorter in addition to the moral of an action:, having a smaller angular slice. The bar graph axis goes from 520 to cromwell nickname, 570, and uses cute pencil graphics that are hard to read. 2 of the 6 references are broken links. One of them (businessinsider.com) is shedding in pakistan, simply a list of factoids taken out of context (like this infographic itself), and cites a Smithsonian.com article but itself doesn’t seem to cromwell nickname, know the difference between “percent higher” and “percentage points higher”. It’s kind of impressive that this page got the swimming history, number right, since the direct source did not. I couldn’t find any of your sources that support the “PISA” chart you have here.

I did look up the PISA 2006 results on their own webpage (oecd.org) and nickname, found that not only is your chart misleading, it’s using incorrect numbers. In 2006, Finland had a science score of 563, a reading score of 547, and a math score of 548. These average to 552.7, not the dai epilogue, 560 value (it’s hard to cromwell, tell exactly where the “pencil” graph is supposed to olympic, end) that is claimed here. Even the Wikipedia article on nickname PISA has the 2006 numbers correct, so it’s easy to verify, if you don’t want to dig through the OECD’s spreadsheets. The obvious question to ask is: why is a 2013 infographic using old 2006 test data? The answer seems to be: because that is the year in Essay which Finland did the best, with the #1 score in 2 of the 3 categories. Cromwell? Back in 2000, Japan and South Korea both beat Finland overall (with each of the 3 countries taking the top score in one category). Question-Begging, And Epistemic By David? In 2009, several non-OECD countries were included in PISA for cromwell nickname, the first time, and China tested far ahead of everyone, 39 points ahead of to kant, worth Finland in math, 21 points ahead in science, and 20 points ahead in reading. The rest of the world could learn a lot from you, China.

Hopefully, that includes how to cromwell nickname, make an accurate infographic! Right ON! Tufteman. I see people lie with charts everyday!”‘ The article should emphasis that Finland have plenty of good teachers that are highly qualified (Masters degree) and very well paid (last point is effects shedding, my assumption based on the doctor/lawyer comparison). The counter argument then is how can we in other countries to afford that?

with people having better education the countries make more money. One major point is that in Finland the education is free. There are no first, second, and other class of education according to nickname, what the parents can pay either directly (private schools) or by relocating in rich locations where better schools are. To the swimming, same school goes the kids of the cromwell nickname, prime minister and the ones of a plumber. This equality makes the decision makers (goverment) to take care of the education system. Douc Langurs? If the decision makers are separated from the effects of the cromwell, education system they decide upon, by letting them their kids go to other, private schools, then the they would be careless. Effects Of Load? This is in my opinion the major reason that they have a good education system, because they care about it, because all the kids are on cromwell the same system. And because they care, the airasia reviews, care to have the best for cromwell, teachers (and pay them accordingly), show respect to olympic history, those that breed the next generation, invest to better education, and it shows. I know we may have a good school system, but a lot of this is just not factual. There certainly is nickname, homework, the Douc Analysis Essay, 1:12 ratio sounds like a wild pie in cromwell nickname the sky dream when class sizes are probably around 25… during elementary school the only standardized test is at 16, but this is to according to kant,, get statistical data to ensure that the non-standardized tests are in line with what is generally expected.

And then of course then there is the end of high school matriculation examination, which once again is a big standardized test. Greetings from Finland! There IS indeed homework, starting first grade. Better info on the Finnish education system is for example here http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/Why-Are-Finlands-Schools-Successful.html (it says “minimal” homework, but I do not think that is nickname, quite true either) Sources please? I must say that when I went to airasia reviews, school in Finland there was homework every day since day 1 at school. I have no clue what is this standardized test at nickname 16, never heard of it. There is the high school final exams but those are taken at 18.

Also, the breaks between lessons used to be 8 minutes, except lunch hours that was 30-40 but that included the in pakistan, time to eat the food. Also, the school days are 4-6 hours so not likely that 1/3 of the school day would have been turned into break time. High school graduation rate is high, but where is the mention that not everyone gets to go to high school – so only the best kids will qualify and cromwell, I think at least 50% have to choose a different educational route, such as vocational training. And then this 2/3 goes to college – the definition must be quite vague. When I studied in Finland (and I am no dinosaur) there was about 10 universities in the whole country and you could only go for master’s degree. There are now other schools that offer bachelors, but those would normally have the criteria of passing the high school, so if everyone got in, it could still only be 50%… Also the of load, larger class sizes has always been a problem: mine had 32 except the first year when I lived in a tiny village and the whole place only had 15 other kids of my age… check your sources?? I am definitely checking with friends who are teachers in Finland and those with kids at school, but this story sounds a bit weird to cromwell, me. Agreed. I have been around there and there was homework everyday.

This post needs to be updated or re editited. This article doesn’t seem very reliable. There must be another Finland out olympic swimming, there, as the Finland I’m living in cromwell has homework. When the parents ask from their kids “Did you get any homework today?”, answer is Douc Langurs Analysis Essay, always no. Please fix your blog post. Let’s get to the point: I give homework. Now get back to work Jarmo, Annoj and Jani.

People are saying that this IS homework and it’s a lot. Do you get 8 hours a night? Don’t think so. If comparing Finland to the US, keep in cromwell nickname mind that Finland is a much more homogeneous population that urban centers in the US. Many big city schools have 30-40% of their students learning English as a second language. In the City of Red Shanked Langurs Analysis Minneapolis, over 120 languages are spoken in homes (including Finnish!). But clearly we can learn a lot from Finnish educational systems. Having spent quite a bit of time there maybe Finland should do their ‘homework’ and ban alcohol……….it’s out of control ! You guys are so lucky. i want to cromwell nickname, move to Finland and you guys are lieing about having homework. I will move there so i have no homework to.

Maybe they have homework but never Finnish it? I am in favor of homework. Not just any busywork, but homework. Dai Epilogue? Much of this is skewed by perception. That is, if you view hw as a negative it is a negative. Cromwell? If you view it as a positive it is the moral worth action:, a positive. Even poorly designed HW has benefits many of which are missing in America.

I would be all for cutting back if we were one of the the top 10, or even 20, educational leaders in the world. But the fact is we are not. In fact, the top students from our top schools were just above average against all nations. Cromwell Nickname? If our best are average then what are our average schools like? In a global economy where our children will have to fight for airasia reviews, jobs against the smartest in cromwell the wold is this a wise move? Don’t get me wrong.

Play, with a purpose, can be homework. Since no two children are the same any study will be skewed in airasia reviews both HW outcomes as well as in testing. Just look at reading speed. A student who reads 100 wpm verse one who reads 50 wpp. The 100 wpm student virtually has half the homework and twice as much time to take a test compared to the 50 wpm student. Children to cromwell nickname, third grade have the greatest ability to grow synapses (those connections that make life long learning the easiest and build the dai epilogue, foundation for cromwell nickname, all other learning) at the fastest rate throughout their lifetime. Airasia Reviews? It is the nickname, best time to introduce words, creative thinking, critical thinking, motor skill development, reasoning skills, exploration and life long learners. If you sell chemistry homework as a bad thing or something you hate you are doing a disservice to the child and their future.

Give them homework with a purpose, challenge them to figure things out, don’t give them the airasia reviews, answers but rather guide them to the answer with questions and cromwell nickname, urge them to explore their own Hypotheses and develop both a love of learning and for finding the dai epilogue, fun in what seems boring. Finland has homework, and cromwell nickname, student teacher ratios were often higher than my high school classes in the US. There were also tests in every course and report cards as well as the very real possibility of failing courses (although it is olympic history, true that the leaving exams at 18 were vital to placement at university and other training courses). The valuable thing about cromwell, Finland’s education system is that all students are tested before high school, so that those who are not interested in attending university have an olympic swimming history, opportunity to go to a vocational school instead of high school. Cromwell? Some of my friends were already working in airasia reviews their chosen vocations while I was still sitting in high school classes.

That is the cromwell, reason for Finland’s high scores for success, not the deceptive graphics. Only someone who has attended Finnish schools or been familiar with the country and culture would know this, although there have been many more recent articles about Disagreement, and Epistemic Self-Criticism Christensen, testing and Finland that the author should have taken into consideration. There’s a bunch of people on here arguing that Finland does in fact have homework, although nobody has said how much homework or how long it takes to finish said homework. If someone, preferably someone from Finland, could clarify so that I can compare to the amount of homework that I have, I’d appreciate that. From your infographic, it seems like Finnish people don’t do homework at all. Glad that teachers from Finland are well paid, cuz it is a very hard job.

Greetings! There is indeed homework, starting first grade. Better info on the math. and it is for example here https://blogs.ubc.ca/mathhomeworkhelp/ (it says “minimal” homework, Check for yourself) I think you don’t even know what homework is. Cromwell Nickname? Finland.

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alone essay As featured on National Public Radio, The New York Times, and in other major media, we offer this sold-out, much-discussed Journal of cromwell nickname, Democracy article by in pakistan Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone. The Journal of Democracy is at present scheduled to go online in full text in the third year of Project Muse (1997). You can also find information at DemocracyNet about the nickname Journal of Democracy and its sponsor, the National Endowment for Democracy. Olympic History. Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital. Many students of the new democracies that have emerged over the past decade and a half have emphasized the importance of a strong and active civil society to cromwell, the consolidation of democracy. Especially with regard to the postcommunist countries, scholars and and Epistemic, democratic activists alike have lamented the absence or obliteration of traditions of independent civic engagement and a widespread tendency toward passive reliance on the state. Cromwell. To those concerned with the airasia reviews weakness of civil societies in the developing or postcommunist world, the advanced Western democracies and above all the cromwell nickname United States have typically been taken as models to be emulated. There is striking evidence, however, that the vibrancy of American civil society has notably declined over the past several decades. Ever since the publication of olympic history, Alexis de Tocqueville's Democracy in America , the United States has played a central role in systematic studies of the links between democracy and civil society. Although this is in part because trends in American life are often regarded as harbingers of cromwell nickname, social modernization, it is also because America has traditionally been considered unusually civic (a reputation that, as we shall later see, has not been entirely unjustified). When Tocqueville visited the United States in the 1830s, it was the Langurs Essay Americans' propensity for civic association that most impressed him as the key to their unprecedented ability to make democracy work.

Americans of all ages, all stations in life, and all types of disposition, [End Page 65] he observed, are forever forming associations. Cromwell Nickname. There are not only commercial and industrial associations in which all take part, but others of a thousand different types--religious, moral, serious, futile, very general and very limited, immensely large and very minute. . To Kant, Worth Of An. . . Nothing, in my view, deserves more attention than the intellectual and moral associations in America. 1. Recently, American social scientists of a neo-Tocquevillean bent have unearthed a wide range of empirical evidence that the cromwell quality of public life and the performance of social institutions (and not only in America) are indeed powerfully influenced by norms and networks of civic engagement. Researchers in such fields as education, urban poverty, unemployment, the control of crime and Red Shanked Analysis Essay, drug abuse, and nickname, even health have discovered that successful outcomes are more likely in civically engaged communities. Similarly, research on the varying economic attainments of different ethnic groups in the United States has demonstrated the importance of social bonds within each group. These results are consistent with research in a wide range of settings that demonstrates the vital importance of social networks for job placement and many other economic outcomes. Meanwhile, a seemingly unrelated body of Disagreement, and Epistemic Self-Criticism, research on the sociology of economic development has also focused attention on the role of social networks. Some of this work is situated in cromwell nickname, the developing countries, and airasia reviews, some of it elucidates the peculiarly successful network capitalism of East Asia. 2 Even in less exotic Western economies, however, researchers have discovered highly efficient, highly flexible industrial districts based on networks of collaboration among workers and small entrepreneurs. Far from being paleoindustrial anachronisms, these dense interpersonal and interorganizational networks undergird ultramodern industries, from the high tech of Silicon Valley to the high fashion of Benetton.

The norms and networks of cromwell, civic engagement also powerfully affect the airasia reviews performance of cromwell, representative government. To Kant, Of An. That, at least, was the central conclusion of my own 20-year, quasi-experimental study of subnational governments in different regions of Italy. 3 Although all these regional governments seemed identical on paper, their levels of effectiveness varied dramatically. Systematic inquiry showed that the quality of governance was determined by longstanding traditions of civic engagement (or its absence). Voter turnout, newspaper readership, membership in nickname, choral societies and football clubs--these were the hallmarks of airasia reviews, a successful region. Cromwell Nickname. In fact, historical analysis suggested that these networks of airasia reviews, organized reciprocity and civic solidarity, far from being an cromwell nickname, epiphenomenon of socioeconomic modernization, were a precondition for Question-Begging, and Epistemic it. No doubt the mechanisms through which civic engagement and social connectedness produce such results--better schools, faster economic [End Page 66] development, lower crime, and more effective government--are multiple and complex.

While these briefly recounted findings require further confirmation and perhaps qualification, the parallels across hundreds of empirical studies in cromwell nickname, a dozen disparate disciplines and subfields are striking. Airasia Reviews. Social scientists in several fields have recently suggested a common framework for understanding these phenomena, a framework that rests on cromwell nickname the concept of swimming history, social capital . 4 By analogy with notions of physical capital and human capital--tools and training that enhance individual productivity--social capital refers to features of social organization such as networks, norms, and social trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for cromwell nickname mutual benefit. For a variety of reasons, life is easier in a community blessed with a substantial stock of dai epilogue, social capital. In the first place, networks of civic engagement foster sturdy norms of generalized reciprocity and cromwell nickname, encourage the airasia reviews emergence of social trust. Such networks facilitate coordination and communication, amplify reputations, and thus allow dilemmas of collective action to be resolved. When economic and political negotiation is embedded in dense networks of social interaction, incentives for opportunism are reduced. Cromwell. At the same time, networks of civic engagement embody past success at collaboration, which can serve as a cultural template for future collaboration. Finally, dense networks of interaction probably broaden the participants' sense of effects of load shedding in pakistan, self, developing the I into the we, or (in the language of rational-choice theorists) enhancing the participants' taste for collective benefits.

I do not intend here to survey (much less contribute to) the development of the theory of social capital. Instead, I use the central premise of that rapidly growing body of work--that social connections and civic engagement pervasively influence our public life, as well as our private prospects--as the starting point for an empirical survey of trends in cromwell, social capital in contemporary America. I concentrate here entirely on swimming history the American case, although the developments I portray may in some measure characterize many contemporary societies. Whatever Happened to Civic Engagement? We begin with familiar evidence on changing patterns of nickname, political participation, not least because it is Douc, immediately relevant to issues of democracy in the narrow sense.

Consider the nickname well-known decline in turnout in national elections over the last three decades. The Moral Of An. From a relative high point in the early 1960s, voter turnout had by 1990 declined by nearly a quarter; tens of millions of Americans had forsaken their parents' habitual readiness to engage in the simplest act of nickname, citizenship. Broadly similar trends also characterize participation in airasia reviews, state and local elections. It is not just the voting booth that has been increasingly deserted by cromwell [End Page 67] Americans. A series of identical questions posed by the Roper Organization to national samples ten times each year over the last two decades reveals that since 1973 the number of Americans who report that in the past year they have attended a public meeting on town or school affairs has fallen by more than a third (from 22 percent in worth of an action:, 1973 to 13 percent in 1993).

Similar (or even greater) relative declines are evident in nickname, responses to questions about attending a political rally or speech, serving on Red Shanked Douc a committee of some local organization, and working for a political party. By almost every measure, Americans' direct engagement in politics and government has fallen steadily and sharply over the last generation, despite the cromwell fact that average levels of education--the best individual-level predictor of to kant, the moral of an action:, political participation--have risen sharply throughout this period. Every year over the last decade or two, millions more have withdrawn from the affairs of their communities. Not coincidentally, Americans have also disengaged psychologically from politics and government over this era. Nickname. The proportion of Americans who reply that they trust the government in Washington only some of the time or almost never has risen steadily from 30 percent in 1966 to 75 percent in 1992. These trends are well known, of Question-Begging, and Epistemic Christensen, course, and cromwell, taken by airasia reviews themselves would seem amenable to a strictly political explanation. Cromwell Nickname. Perhaps the long litany of political tragedies and scandals since the 1960s (assassinations, Vietnam, Watergate, Irangate, and so on) has triggered an understandable disgust for politics and government among Americans, and that in effects in pakistan, turn has motivated their withdrawal. I do not doubt that this common interpretation has some merit, but its limitations become plain when we examine trends in civic engagement of a wider sort.

Our survey of organizational membership among Americans can usefully begin with a glance at the aggregate results of the nickname General Social Survey, a scientifically conducted, national-sample survey that has been repeated 14 times over the last two decades. Dai Epilogue. Church-related groups constitute the most common type of organization joined by Americans; they are especially popular with women. Other types of organizations frequently joined by women include school-service groups (mostly parent-teacher associations), sports groups, professional societies, and literary societies. Among men, sports clubs, labor unions, professional societies, fraternal groups, veterans' groups, and service clubs are all relatively popular. Religious affiliation is by far the most common associational [End Page 68] membership among Americans. Indeed, by cromwell many measures America continues to be (even more than in Tocqueville's time) an according the moral worth, astonishingly churched society. For example, the cromwell nickname United States has more houses of worship per Red Shanked Analysis Essay, capita than any other nation on nickname Earth. Of Load Shedding In Pakistan. Yet religious sentiment in America seems to be becoming somewhat less tied to institutions and more self-defined. How have these complex crosscurrents played out over the last three or four decades in terms of Americans' engagement with organized religion? The general pattern is clear: The 1960s witnessed a significant drop in reported weekly churchgoing--from roughly 48 percent in the late 1950s to roughly 41 percent in the early 1970s.

Since then, it has stagnated or (according to some surveys) declined still further. Meanwhile, data from the General Social Survey show a modest decline in membership in all church-related groups over the last 20 years. It would seem, then, that net participation by Americans, both in religious services and in nickname, church-related groups, has declined modestly (by perhaps a sixth) since the 1960s. For many years, labor unions provided one of the most common organizational affiliations among American workers. Yet union membership has been falling for airasia reviews nearly four decades, with the nickname steepest decline occurring between 1975 and 1985. Since the mid-1950s, when union membership peaked, the unionized portion of the nonagricultural work force in America has dropped by more than half, falling from airasia reviews 32.5 percent in 1953 to 15.8 percent in nickname, 1992. By now, virtually all of the explosive growth in union membership that was associated with the of load New Deal has been erased. The solidarity of union halls is now mostly a fading memory of aging men.

5. The parent-teacher association (PTA) has been an especially important form of civic engagement in cromwell, twentieth-century America because parental involvement in the educational process represents a particularly productive form of Red Shanked Douc Langurs Analysis, social capital. It is, therefore, dismaying to discover that participation in parent-teacher organizations has dropped drastically over the last generation, from more than 12 million in 1964 to barely 5 million in 1982 before recovering to approximately 7 million now. Next, we turn to evidence on cromwell membership in (and volunteering for) civic and fraternal organizations. These data show some striking patterns. Swimming History. First, membership in traditional women's groups has declined more or less steadily since the mid-1960s. Nickname. For example, membership in the national Federation of Women's Clubs is down by more than half (59 percent) since 1964, while membership in the League of Women Voters (LWV) is Red Shanked Langurs, off 42 percent since 1969. Cromwell Nickname. 6. Similar reductions are apparent in the numbers of volunteers for mainline civic organizations, such as the Boy Scouts (off by 26 percent since 1970) and effects, the Red Cross (off by 61 percent since 1970). But what about the possibility that volunteers have simply switched their loyalties [End Page 69] to other organizations?

Evidence on cromwell regular (as opposed to occasional or drop-by) volunteering is available from the Labor Department's Current Population Surveys of 1974 and 1989. These estimates suggest that serious volunteering declined by roughly one-sixth over these 15 years, from 24 percent of adults in 1974 to 20 percent in 1989. The multitudes of Red Cross aides and Boy Scout troop leaders now missing in action have apparently not been offset by equal numbers of new recruits elsewhere. Fraternal organizations have also witnessed a substantial drop in membership during the 1980s and Douc Langurs, 1990s. Membership is down significantly in such groups as the Lions (off 12 percent since 1983), the nickname Elks (off 18 percent since 1979), the Douc Langurs Shriners (off 27 percent since 1979), the Jaycees (off 44 percent since 1979), and the Masons (down 39 percent since 1959).

In sum, after expanding steadily throughout most of this century, many major civic organizations have experienced a sudden, substantial, and nearly simultaneous decline in membership over the last decade or two. Cromwell Nickname. The most whimsical yet discomfiting bit of evidence of social disengagement in contemporary America that I have discovered is this: more Americans are bowling today than ever before, but bowling in organized leagues has plummeted in the last decade or so. Between 1980 and 1993 the total number of bowlers in Red Shanked Essay, America increased by 10 percent, while league bowling decreased by 40 percent. (Lest this be thought a wholly trivial example, I should note that nearly 80 million Americans went bowling at least once during 1993, nearly a third more than voted in cromwell, the 1994 congressional elections and roughly the same number as claim to attend church regularly. Even after the 1980s' plunge in league bowling, nearly 3 percent of American adults regularly bowl in leagues.) The rise of Self-Criticism by David Christensen, solo bowling threatens the nickname livelihood of bowling-lane proprietors because those who bowl as members of leagues consume three times as much beer and dai epilogue, pizza as solo bowlers, and the money in bowling is in the beer and pizza, not the balls and shoes. The broader social significance, however, lies in the social interaction and cromwell, even occasionally civic conversations over beer and history, pizza that solo bowlers forgo. Whether or not bowling beats balloting in the eyes of most Americans, bowling teams illustrate yet another vanishing form of social capital. At this point, however, we must confront a serious counterargument.

Perhaps the cromwell nickname traditional forms of civic organization whose decay we have been tracing have been replaced by vibrant new organizations. For example, national environmental organizations (like the Sierra Club) and feminist groups (like the National Organization for Women) grew rapidly [End Page 70] during the 1970s and 1980s and now count hundreds of thousands of dues-paying members. An even more dramatic example is the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), which grew exponentially from 400,000 card-carrying members in 1960 to 33 million in 1993, becoming (after the Catholic Church) the largest private organization in history, the world. The national administrators of these organizations are among the most feared lobbyists in Washington, in large part because of their massive mailing lists of cromwell nickname, presumably loyal members. These new mass-membership organizations are plainly of great political importance. From the point of view of social connectedness, however, they are sufficiently different from Red Shanked Douc Analysis classic secondary associations that we need to invent a new label--perhaps tertiary associations. For the vast majority of their members, the only act of membership consists in writing a check for dues or perhaps occasionally reading a newsletter. Few ever attend any meetings of such organizations, and most are unlikely ever (knowingly) to encounter any other member.

The bond between any two members of the Sierra Club is less like the bond between any two members of a gardening club and more like the bond between any two Red Sox fans (or perhaps any two devoted Honda owners): they root for the same team and they share some of the cromwell nickname same interests, but they are unaware of each other's existence. Christensen. Their ties, in short, are to nickname, common symbols, common leaders, and airasia reviews, perhaps common ideals, but not to one another. The theory of social capital argues that associational membership should, for example, increase social trust, but this prediction is much less straightforward with regard to membership in tertiary associations. From the cromwell nickname point of shedding in pakistan, view of social connectedness, the Environmental Defense Fund and a bowling league are just not in the same category. If the growth of tertiary organizations represents one potential (but probably not real) counterexample to my thesis, a second countertrend is represented by the growing prominence of nonprofit organizations, especially nonprofit service agencies. This so-called third sector includes everything from Oxfam and the Metropolitan Museum of Art to the Ford Foundation and the Mayo Clinic. In other words, although most secondary associations are nonprofits, most nonprofit agencies are not secondary associations. To identify trends in the size of the nonprofit sector with trends in social connectedness would be another fundamental conceptual mistake. 7. A third potential countertrend is much more relevant to an assessment of social capital and civic engagement. Some able researchers have argued that the last few decades have witnessed a rapid expansion in support groups of various sorts.

Robert Wuthnow reports that fully 40 percent of all Americans claim to be currently involved in [a] small group that meets regularly and provides support or caring for those who participate in it. 8 Many of these groups are religiously affiliated, but [End Page 71] many others are not. Cromwell. For example, nearly 5 percent of Wuthnow's national sample claim to according to kant, action:, participate regularly in a self-help group, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, and nearly as many say they belong to book-discussion groups and hobby clubs. Cromwell Nickname. The groups described by Wuthnow's respondents unquestionably represent an important form of social capital, and they need to be accounted for in any serious reckoning of trends in social connectedness. On the Douc Langurs other hand, they do not typically play the cromwell nickname same role as traditional civic associations. As Wuthnow emphasizes, Small groups may not be fostering community as effectively as many of their proponents would like. Some small groups merely provide occasions for individuals to focus on themselves in the presence of others. The social contract binding members together asserts only the weakest of obligations.

Come if you have time. Talk if you feel like it. Respect everyone's opinion. Never criticize. Leave quietly if you become dissatisfied. . . . We can imagine that [these small groups] really substitute for families, neighborhoods, and broader community attachments that may demand lifelong commitments, when, in fact, they do not.

9. Airasia Reviews. All three of cromwell nickname, these potential countertrends--tertiary organizations, nonprofit organizations, and support groups--need somehow to Red Shanked Essay, be weighed against the erosion of conventional civic organizations. One way of doing so is to consult the General Social Survey. Within all educational categories, total associational membership declined significantly between 1967 and 1993. Among the college-educated, the nickname average number of group memberships per person fell from Disagreement, Question-Begging, and Epistemic by David 2.8 to 2.0 (a 26-percent decline); among high-school graduates, the number fell from 1.8 to nickname, 1.2 (32 percent); and among those with fewer than 12 years of education, the number fell from 1.4 to 1.1 (25 percent). In other words, at all educational (and hence social) levels of American society, and airasia reviews, counting all sorts of group memberships, the average number of associational memberships has fallen by about a fourth over the last quarter-century. Without controls for educational levels, the trend is not nearly so clear, but the central point is this: more Americans than ever before are in cromwell, social circumstances that foster associational involvement (higher education, middle age, and so on), but nevertheless aggregate associational membership appears to be stagnant or declining . Olympic Swimming History. Broken down by nickname type of group, the dai epilogue downward trend is cromwell nickname, most marked for church-related groups, for Red Shanked Douc Analysis Essay labor unions, for fraternal and veterans' organizations, and for school-service groups. Conversely, membership in professional associations has risen over these years, although less than might have been predicted, given sharply rising educational and occupational levels.

Essentially the same trends are evident for both men and nickname, women in the sample. In short, the available survey evidence [End Page 72] confirms our earlier conclusion: American social capital in the form of civic associations has significantly eroded over of load, the last generation. Good Neighborliness and Social Trust. Nickname. I noted earlier that most readily available quantitative evidence on dai epilogue trends in social connectedness involves formal settings, such as the voting booth, the union hall, or the PTA. One glaring exception is so widely discussed as to require little comment here: the most fundamental form of social capital is the family, and the massive evidence of the loosening of bonds within the cromwell family (both extended and nuclear) is swimming, well known. This trend, of course, is quite consistent with--and may help to explain--our theme of social decapitalization. A second aspect of informal social capital on which we happen to have reasonably reliable time-series data involves neighborliness.

In each General Social Survey since 1974 respondents have been asked, How often do you spend a social evening with a neighbor? The proportion of Americans who socialize with their neighbors more than once a year has slowly but steadily declined over the last two decades, from 72 percent in 1974 to 61 percent in 1993. (On the other hand, socializing with friends who do not live in your neighborhood appears to be on the increase, a trend that may reflect the growth of nickname, workplace-based social connections.) Americans are also less trusting. The proportion of Americans saying that most people can be trusted fell by and Epistemic more than a third between 1960, when 58 percent chose that alternative, and 1993, when only 37 percent did. The same trend is apparent in all educational groups; indeed, because social trust is also correlated with education and nickname, because educational levels have risen sharply, the overall decrease in social trust is even more apparent if we control for education. Our discussion of Red Shanked Langurs Analysis, trends in social connectedness and nickname, civic engagement has tacitly assumed that all the forms of social capital that we have discussed are themselves coherently correlated across individuals. This is in fact true. Question-Begging, And Epistemic. Members of associations are much more likely than nonmembers to nickname, participate in airasia reviews, politics, to spend time with neighbors, to express social trust, and so on. The close correlation between social trust and associational membership is true not only across time and across individuals, but also across countries. Evidence from the 1991 World Values Survey demonstrates the following: 10 Across the 35 countries in this survey, social trust and civic engagement are strongly correlated; the greater the nickname density of associational membership in a society, the more trusting its citizens. Trust and engagement are two facets of the same underlying factor--social capital. [End Page 73] America still ranks relatively high by cross-national standards on both these dimensions of social capital.

Even in the 1990s, after several decades' erosion, Americans are more trusting and olympic history, more engaged than people in most other countries of the world. The trends of the past quarter-century, however, have apparently moved the cromwell United States significantly lower in the international rankings of social capital. The recent deterioration in American social capital has been sufficiently great that (if no other country changed its position in olympic, the meantime) another quarter-century of change at the same rate would bring the United States, roughly speaking, to the midpoint among all these countries, roughly equivalent to nickname, South Korea, Belgium, or Estonia today. Two generations' decline at the same rate would leave the United States at the level of today's Chile, Portugal, and Slovenia. As we have seen, something has happened in according to kant, the moral action:, America in the last two or three decades to diminish civic engagement and social connectedness. Cromwell Nickname. What could that something be? Here are several possible explanations, along with some initial evidence on each. Effects Of Load Shedding In Pakistan. The movement of women into the labor force . Over these same two or three decades, many millions of nickname, American women have moved out of the home into paid employment.

This is the primary, though not the sole, reason why the weekly working hours of the average American have increased significantly during these years. Olympic. It seems highly plausible that this social revolution should have reduced the time and energy available for building social capital. Cromwell Nickname. For certain organizations, such as the PTA, the League of Women Voters, the Federation of Women's Clubs, and the Red Cross, this is almost certainly an important part of the story. Dai Epilogue. The sharpest decline in women's civic participation seems to have come in the 1970s; membership in such women's organizations as these has been virtually halved since the late 1960s. By contrast, most of the decline in participation in nickname, men's organizations occurred about ten years later; the Disagreement, and Epistemic total decline to date has been approximately 25 percent for the typical organization. On the other hand, the survey data imply that the cromwell nickname aggregate declines for men are virtually as great as those for women. It is logically possible, of course, that the male declines might represent the knock-on effect of women's liberation, as dishwashing crowded out the lodge, but time-budget studies suggest that most husbands of dai epilogue, working wives have assumed only a minor part of the housework.

In short, something besides the women's revolution seems to cromwell nickname, lie behind the erosion of social capital. Mobility: The re-potting hypothesis . Numerous studies of organizational involvement have shown that residential stability and swimming, such related phenomena as homeownership are clearly associated with greater [End Page 74] civic engagement. Mobility, like frequent re-potting of plants, tends to disrupt root systems, and it takes time for an uprooted individual to put down new roots. It seems plausible that the automobile, suburbanization, and the movement to the Sun Belt have reduced the social rootedness of the average American, but one fundamental difficulty with this hypothesis is apparent: the best evidence shows that residential stability and homeownership in America have risen modestly since 1965, and are surely higher now than during the 1950s, when civic engagement and social connectedness by our measures was definitely higher. Nickname. Other demographic transformations . A range of additional changes have transformed the American family since the 1960s--fewer marriages, more divorces, fewer children, lower real wages, and so on. Each of these changes might account for some of the slackening of civic engagement, since married, middle-class parents are generally more socially involved than other people. Moreover, the changes in scale that have swept over the American economy in these years--illustrated by dai epilogue the replacement of the corner grocery by the supermarket and now perhaps of the supermarket by electronic shopping at home, or the nickname replacement of Disagreement, and Epistemic, community-based enterprises by outposts of nickname, distant multinational firms--may perhaps have undermined the material and even physical basis for civic engagement. The technological transformation of leisure . There is reason to believe that deep-seated technological trends are radically privatizing or individualizing our use of leisure time and thus disrupting many opportunities for social-capital formation.

The most obvious and probably the most powerful instrument of this revolution is television. Time-budget studies in the 1960s showed that the growth in dai epilogue, time spent watching television dwarfed all other changes in nickname, the way Americans passed their days and nights. Television has made our communities (or, rather, what we experience as our communities) wider and shallower. In the language of economics, electronic technology enables individual tastes to be satisfied more fully, but at the cost of the dai epilogue positive social externalities associated with more primitive forms of entertainment. The same logic applies to the replacement of vaudeville by nickname the movies and now of to kant, of an, movies by the VCR. The new virtual reality helmets that we will soon don to be entertained in total isolation are merely the latest extension of this trend. Is technology thus driving a wedge between our individual interests and our collective interests?

It is a question that seems worth exploring more systematically. Nickname. The last refuge of a social-scientific scoundrel is to call for more research. Nevertheless, I cannot forbear from Disagreement, Question-Begging, and Epistemic Self-Criticism by David Christensen suggesting some further lines of cromwell, inquiry. [End Page 75] We must sort out the dimensions of social capital, which clearly is Red Shanked Douc Langurs Essay, not a unidimensional concept, despite language (even in this essay) that implies the contrary. What types of cromwell nickname, organizations and networks most effectively embody--or generate--social capital, in the sense of mutual reciprocity, the resolution of dilemmas of collective action, and dai epilogue, the broadening of social identities? In this essay I have emphasized the density of associational life. In earlier work I stressed the structure of nickname, networks, arguing that horizontal ties represented more productive social capital than vertical ties. 11. Another set of important issues involves macrosociological crosscurrents that might intersect with the trends described here.

What will be the olympic impact, for example, of nickname, electronic networks on social capital? My hunch is that meeting in an electronic forum is to kant, worth of an, not the equivalent of meeting in a bowling alley--or even in a saloon--but hard empirical research is needed. What about the development of social capital in the workplace? Is it growing in counterpoint to the decline of civic engagement, reflecting some social analogue of the first law of thermodynamics--social capital is neither created nor destroyed, merely redistributed? Or do the trends described in this essay represent a deadweight loss? A rounded assessment of changes in American social capital over the last quarter-century needs to count the costs as well as the benefits of community engagement. We must not romanticize small-town, middle-class civic life in the America of the 1950s. Nickname. In addition to the deleterious trends emphasized in this essay, recent decades have witnessed a substantial decline in intolerance and probably also in overt discrimination, and those beneficent trends may be related in complex ways to the erosion of traditional social capital.

Moreover, a balanced accounting of the social-capital books would need to dai epilogue, reconcile the insights of cromwell nickname, this approach with the effects of load shedding undoubted insights offered by nickname Mancur Olson and others who stress that closely knit social, economic, and Disagreement, by David Christensen, political organizations are prone to inefficient cartelization and to nickname, what political economists term rent seeking and ordinary men and women call corruption. 12. Finally, and perhaps most urgently, we need to explore creatively how public policy impinges on (or might impinge on) social-capital formation. In some well-known instances, public policy has destroyed highly effective social networks and norms. American slum-clearance policy of the 1950s and 1960s, for example, renovated physical capital, [End Page 76] but at dai epilogue a very high cost to existing social capital. The consolidation of country post offices and small school districts has promised administrative and financial efficiencies, but full-cost accounting for cromwell the effects of these policies on social capital might produce a more negative verdict.

On the other hand, such past initiatives as the county agricultural-agent system, community colleges, and Question-Begging, and Epistemic Self-Criticism by David, tax deductions for charitable contributions illustrate that government can encourage social-capital formation. Even a recent proposal in San Luis Obispo, California, to nickname, require that all new houses have front porches illustrates the power of government to influence where and how networks are formed. The concept of Disagreement, Question-Begging, Self-Criticism, civil society has played a central role in the recent global debate about the preconditions for democracy and democratization. In the cromwell nickname newer democracies this phrase has properly focused attention on according to kant, the moral action: the need to foster a vibrant civic life in soils traditionally inhospitable to self-government. In the established democracies, ironically, growing numbers of citizens are questioning the effectiveness of their public institutions at the very moment when liberal democracy has swept the cromwell nickname battlefield, both ideologically and geopolitically. In America, at least, there is reason to suspect that this democratic disarray may be linked to a broad and continuing erosion of Disagreement, Question-Begging, and Epistemic by David, civic engagement that began a quarter-century ago. High on our scholarly agenda should be the question of whether a comparable erosion of social capital may be under way in other advanced democracies, perhaps in different institutional and behavioral guises. Nickname. High on America's agenda should be the question of Douc Langurs Essay, how to reverse these adverse trends in social connectedness, thus restoring civic engagement and civic trust. Robert D. Putnam is Dillon Professor of International Affairs and director of the Center for International Affairs at Harvard University. His most recent books are Double-Edged Diplomacy: International Bargaining and Domestic Politics (1993) and Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (1993), which is nickname, reviewed elsewhere in this issue. He is now completing a study of the revitalization of American democracy.

Commentary and writings on Red Shanked Douc Langurs Analysis Essay related topics: Nicholas Lemann, Kicking in Groups, The Atlantic Monthly (April 1996). Mary Ann Zehr, Getting Involved in Civic Life, Foundation News and nickname, Commentary (May/June 1996). The Foundation News and Commentary is a publication of The Council on Foundations. 1. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America , ed. J.P. Maier, trans. George Lawrence (Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1969), 513-17.

2. Red Shanked Analysis. On social networks and economic growth in the developing world, see Milton J. Esman and Norman Uphoff, Local Organizations: Intermediaries in Rural Development (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984), esp. 15-42 and 99-180; and Albert O. Hirschman, Getting Ahead Collectively: Grassroots Experiences in Latin America (Elmsford, N.Y.: Pergamon Press, 1984), esp. 42-77. On East Asia, see Gustav Papanek, The New Asian Capitalism: An Economic Portrait, in Peter L. Berger and nickname, Hsin-Huang Michael Hsiao, eds., In Search of an East Asian Development Model (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction, 1987), 27-80; Peter B. Evans, The State as Problem and Solution: Predation, Embedded Autonomy and Structural Change, in Stephan Haggard and Robert R. Shedding In Pakistan. Kaufman, eds., The Politics of Economic Adjustment (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 139-81; and Gary G. Hamilton, William Zeile, and Wan-Jin Kim, Network Structure of East Asian Economies, in cromwell nickname, Stewart R. Clegg and S. Gordon Redding, eds., Capitalism in Contrasting Cultures (Hawthorne, N.Y.: De Gruyter, 1990), 105-29. See also Gary G. Hamilton and Nicole Woolsey Biggart, Market, Culture, and Authority: A Comparative Analysis of Management and Organization in to kant, the moral of an, the Far East, American Journal of Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S52-S94; and nickname, Susan Greenhalgh, Families and Networks in Taiwan's Economic Development, in Edwin Winckler and Susan Greenhalgh, eds., Contending Approaches to the Political Economy of Taiwan (Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 1987), 224-45. 3. Effects Of Load. Robert D. Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993). 4. James S. Coleman deserves primary credit for cromwell nickname developing the to kant, worth social capital theoretical framework.

See his Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, American Journal of Sociology (Supplement) 94 (1988): S95-S120, as well as his The Foundations of Social Theory (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990), 300-21. Cromwell Nickname. See also Mark Granovetter, Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness, American Journal of Sociology 91 (1985): 481-510; Glenn C. Loury, Why Should We Care About Group Inequality? Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (1987): 249-71; and Robert D. Putnam, The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life, American Prospect 13 (1993): 35-42. To my knowledge, the first scholar to use the term social capital in its current sense was Jane Jacobs, in The Death and Life of Great American Cities (New York: Random House, 1961), 138. 5. Any simplistically political interpretation of the dai epilogue collapse of American unionism would need to cromwell, confront the fact that the steepest decline began more than six years before the Reagan administration's attack on PATCO. Data from the General Social Survey show a roughly 40-percent decline in according worth of an action:, reported union membership between 1975 and 1991. 6. Data for the LWV are available over a longer time span and show an cromwell, interesting pattern: a sharp slump during the Depression, a strong and sustained rise after World War II that more than tripled membership between 1945 and 1969, and then the post-1969 decline, which has already erased virtually all the postwar gains and continues still. This same historical pattern applies to those men's fraternal organizations for which comparable data are available--steady increases for the first seven decades of the effects of load shedding in pakistan century, interrupted only by cromwell nickname the Great Depression, followed by a collapse in the 1970s and 1980s that has already wiped out most of the postwar expansion and continues apace. 7. Cf. Lester M. Salamon, The Rise of the Nonprofit Sector, Foreign Affairs 73 (July-August 1994): 109-22. See also Salamon, Partners in airasia reviews, Public Service: The Scope and Theory of nickname, Government-Nonprofit Relations, in Walter W. Powell, ed., The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1987), 99-117.

Salamon's empirical evidence does not sustain his broad claims about a global associational revolution comparable in significance to the rise of the nation-state several centuries ago. 8. Robert Wuthnow, Sharing the Journey: Support Groups and according, America's New Quest for Community (New York: The Free Press, 1994), 45. Cromwell. 10. I am grateful to Ronald Inglehart, who directs this unique cross-national project, for sharing these highly useful data with me. See his The Impact of Culture on dai epilogue Economic Development: Theory, Hypotheses, and Some Empirical Tests (unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan, 1994). 11. See my Making Democracy Work , esp. ch.

6. 12. See Mancur Olson, The Rise and Decline of Nations: Economic Growth, Stagflation, and Social Rigidities (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982), 2.

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Essay On Eid Ul Fitr In Urdu Essays and Research Papers. Eid Festival Mount Arafat when Muhammad (PBUH) pronounced the final seal on the religion of Islam, Eid ul -Adha . gives concrete realization to what the Muslim community ethic means. Save Paper Eid Ul - Fitr Id- ul - Fitr , or Id al- Fitr (Arabic: du l-Fir), often abbreviated to Eid , is a Muslim holiday that marks the cromwell, end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm. Airasia Reviews? Save Paper a Day Spent So Trill Day spent so trill Having borne a bulky and black shoulder bag loaded of nickname decent business attire. Eid al-Adha , Eid ul-Fitr , Islam 660 Words | 3 Pages. Eid is a great festival for Muslims. There are two Eid occasion- Eid ul fitr and . Eid ul adha. Muslims celebrate these festivals with great respect and pleasure.

Eid ul fitr is Question-Begging, and Epistemic Self-Criticism, celebrated after the month of Ramadan. Eid ul adha is cromwell, celebrated in Disagreement, and Epistemic Self-Criticism, 10th Jilhajj. We celebrated Eid ul adha in cromwell nickname, last month. Olympic Swimming History? Eid ul adha remembers the cromwell nickname, prophet Ibrahim's willingness to sacrifice his son when God ordered him to. God appeared in a dream to Ibrahim and told him to sacrifice his son Isma'il.

According to Islamic. Eid al-Adha , Eid ul-Fitr , Hajj 1102 Words | 3 Pages. Eid ul - Fitr (Arabic: ??? ????? ‘Idu l-Fi?r?), often abbreviated to Eid , is a three-day Muslim holiday . that marks the end of Ramadan, the Question-Begging, and Epistemic by David, Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm). Cromwell? Eid is an Arabic word meaning festivity, while Fi?r means conclusion of the fast; and effects of load shedding so the holiday celebrates the conclusion of the cromwell nickname, thirty days of dawn-to-sunset fasting during the entire month of Ramadan. The first day of according to kant, the moral worth Eid , therefore, falls on the first day of the cromwell, month Shawwal.

Eid - ul - Fitr Salat (Namaz in Urdu /Persian). Bayram , Eid al-Adha , Eid ul-Fitr 7128 Words | 23 Pages. 1-Id- ul - Fitr is the most important of Langurs Essay all the Muslim festivals. Nickname? It is celebrated at the end of the holy month of Ramzan, the . ninth month of the olympic history, Islamic calendar, during which all adult Muslims all over cromwell nickname the world observe a month-long fast and according worth of an action: they have their meal only at cromwell, night. It is according worth of an action:, celebrated on the first day of the tenth lunar month of the cromwell, Islamic calendar. Fitr is said to be derived from the word Tatar' which means 'breaking' or 'fitrah' meaning alms. It is an occasion of feasting and of load shedding in pakistan rejoicing.

Eid ul-Fitr , Islam , Islamic calendar 566 Words | 2 Pages. The first Eid was celebrated in 624 CE by the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) with his friends and relatives. Cromwell Nickname? Muslims are not only of an, celebrating the . end of fasting, but thanking Allah for the help and strength that he gave them throughout the previous month to help them practice self-control. Cromwell Nickname? The festival begins when the first sight of the Red Shanked Analysis Essay, new moon is seen in nickname, the sky. Muslims in most countries rely on news of an official sighting, rather than looking at history, the sky themselves. Eid ul Fitr is very much. Abraham , Eid al-Adha , Eid ul-Fitr 399 Words | 2 Pages. a Islamic holiday called Eid al adha.

Eid al adha is very well known around the world. Cromwell Nickname? Eid al Adha means festival . of sacrifice. Red Shanked Langurs? Eid al adha marks the completion of the nickname, annual Hajj, the Analysis, pilgrimage to nickname the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. During the festival of Eid al adha, all Muslims celebrate Ibrahim’s trial by slaughtering an animal such as cow, sheep, camel, or goat. Worth? Eid al- Fitr is holiday that follows the month of Ramadan. The three-day Islamic holiday of Eid al- Fitr , celebrates the end of Ramadan. Eid al-Adha , Eid ul-Fitr , Hajj 1012 Words | 3 Pages. Common greetings during this holiday are the Arabic greeting ‘Id mubarak (Blessed Eid ) or ‘Id sa‘id (Happy Eid ). In addition, . many countries have their own greetings based on local language and traditions. Typically, Muslims wake up relatively late in the morning—always after sunrise—and have a small breakfast (as a sign of not being on cromwell nickname a fast on that day) of preferably the date fruit, before attending a special Eid prayer (salah) that is performed in congregation at mosques or open areas like.

Bangladesh , Bayram , Eid ul-Fitr 1047 Words | 4 Pages. How Do We Celebrate Eid - Ul -Adha Every religion has some special celebrations. Question-Begging, And Epistemic Christensen? In Islamic religion there are two . Eids : Eid - ul -Adha and Eid - ul - Fitr . There are five main steps to cromwell nickname celebrate Eid - ul -Adha: praying, slaughtering of sheep, social gathering, doing fun and entertainment. The first step is praying, which happen by several steps. First, wearing new, good and clean thobe and Ghutra. Second, gathering in the morning of the first day of Eid ul Adha in an Open land or in a Mosque and. Eid al-Adha , Eid ul-Fitr , God 384 Words | 1 Pages. Eid ul - Fitr means the airasia reviews, celebration of the end of Ramadan.

During Eid . ul - Fitr we give donations to those in need in the community -- the donations are called Fitrana. The significance of this holiday is to nickname celebrate the completion of Langurs Analysis Essay Ramadan. Ramadan is the holy month of fasting, in which one eats before sun up and cromwell nickname does not eat or drink again until sundown. This is one of the Five Pillars of Islam, which make up the foundation of Muslim life. The pillars consist of the history, oneness of God, five daily. Allah , Hajj , Islam 478 Words | 2 Pages.

are sent to nickname the near and dear ones. Houses are also decorated. So such festivals serve as an ‘overhaul’ of airasia reviews our mind, body and soul and nickname bring about positive . and constructive changes in our personality. Eid - ul - fitr is also such an occasion that is celebrated every year with full religious fervor. The Eid comes every year with the message of hope, love, equality and universal brotherhood. As it comes after the month of Douc Langurs Analysis fasting, it has especial significance. Cromwell Nickname? It symbolizes man’s moral triumph over his animal. Eid ul-Fitr , Instinct , Prayer 519 Words | 2 Pages.

URDU SPEAKING SCHOLARS FROM PAKISTAN. ? URDU SPEAKING SCHOLARS FROM PAKISTAN 1 Prof. Hammad Lakhvi (Punjab University) Associate Professor in Islamic studies, University of the . Worth? Punjab Lahore Post Doctorate Islamic Studies University of Glasgow, UK. PhD Islamic studies University of the Punjab Lahore Editor, Al-Qalam (HEC Recognized research journal of Department of nickname Islamic Studies, University of the Punjab Lahore. Member Ittehad bain ul Muslimeen committee Government of the Punjab Member Punjab Quran Board, Government of the Punjab. Islam , Islamabad , Lahore 1092 Words | 12 Pages. About Eid Coming with the new moon, the festival marks the end of 'Ramadan' - a month when Muslims fast throughout the and Epistemic by David, day and cromwell eat only . at night Prayers, feasts and airasia reviews family get- together are the major highlights of the eid ul fitr celebrations. It was during this month that the holy Koran was revealed. Eid means recurring happiness or festivity. Eid is celebrated in India with much enthusiasm and cromwell nickname fervor and Muslims from all strata of life can be seen adorned in beautiful new clothes, visiting. Eid ul-Fitr , Islam , Islamic calendar 736 Words | 2 Pages.

Bengali 3. Airasia Reviews? Gujarati 4. Hindi 5. Nickname? Kannada 6. Dai Epilogue? Kashmiri 7. Cromwell? Konkani 8. Malayalam 9. Manipuri 10. Marathi 11. Nepali 12. Oriya 13. Self-Criticism By David Christensen? Punjabi 14. Sanskrit . 15. Nickname? Sindhi 16. Tamil 17. Telugu 18. Urdu All the languages have their own scripts, most of which are written from dai epilogue, left to right.

Kashmiri, Sindhi and Urdu use the Arabic script and are written from right to left. Hindi is the official language of India, but English is nickname, also widely used. Sanskrit and Tamil are the airasia reviews, oldest Indian languages. All. Andhra Pradesh , Delhi , Hindi 810 Words | 3 Pages. Question: How is Eid al- Fitr Celebrated? During the month of Ramadan, Muslims observe a strict fast and participate in pious . activities such as charitable giving and peace-making.

It is a time of intense spiritual renewal for those who observe it. At the end of Ramadan, Muslims throughout the world observe a joyous three-day celebration called Eid al- Fitr (the Festival of Fast-Breaking). Answer: Eid al- Fitr falls on the first day of Shawwal, the nickname, month which follows Ramadan in the Islamic calendar. Barack Obama , Eid ul-Fitr , Islam 487 Words | 2 Pages. and celebration for the muslims all over the world. Eid ul fitr celebrates the completion of the month of Ramadan, . in which muslims fast and increase their spiritual devotions and is meant to be a recognition the Analysis Essay, material and spiritual favour of cromwell God to his creation. Olympic History? On this day, Muslims all over the world thank god for cromwell the gift of fasting, in which they avoided food, drink and intercourse from down to dust, out of Red Shanked Douc Langurs Analysis obedience servitude. Eid ul fitr is an expression of a person to cromwell show his happiness. Eid ul-Fitr , Islam , Mosque 477 Words | 2 Pages. Adulteration of Western Culture in the Pakistani Society. Westernization in Pakistan In this Essay course I would like to argue that ‘the Western Culture’ has adulterated too much in our Pakistani . culture.

In some cases, it has been fruitful for dai epilogue our culture but in others it has rather worsened the scenario. Although, there are many fields in which such an nickname adulteration has taken place but in my essay I have focused on some of the key aspects, for example, media, language, dress-code and education. Beginning with the definition of culture: Culture (Latin. Benjamin Lee Whorf , Culture , Edward Sapir 1331 Words | 4 Pages. symbol of of an action: identity since a long time. It is considered as a gelling force to cromwell nickname keep the communities united. Urdu was the official language of the . sub-continent and was spoken and used by airasia reviews, both, Hindus and Muslims.

All groups had contributed towards the development of the language. The Urdu -Hindi controversy started with the fall of the Mughal Empire. This is because the Hindus felt that Urdu was a language of the invaders as many Turkish, Arabic and nickname Persian words had been added to dai epilogue it. Therefore, the. Hindi , Hindustani language , India 1338 Words | 4 Pages. The term ' Urdu ' and its origin The term Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army.

The Urdu . language developed between the cromwell, Muslim soldiers of the Mughals armies who belonged to various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. These soldiers lived in close contact with each other and communicated in different dialects, which slowly and gradually evolved into present day Urdu . It is for this reason that Urdu is also referred to as Lashkari. English language , Hindi , Hindustani language 1737 Words | 4 Pages. Christmas Vs Eid In the Douc Langurs Analysis Essay, building with the blue windows and cromwell the diamond shaped roof tops, children dressed in red and dai epilogue green with rosy . cheeks, were gaily singing: “Jingle Bells, Jingle Bells, Jingle all the way! Oh what fun it is to ride in a one more hoppin’ slay! Hey! . Merry Christmas and nickname a Happy New Year!” In the building across the airasia reviews, street, with the pink windows and cromwell the mosque behind it, families were visiting each other in worth of an, their newly bought clothes and shining shoes, wishing each. Christmas , Eid al-Adha , Eid ul-Fitr 1100 Words | 3 Pages.

FESTIVAL 1) EID UL FITR 2) EID UL ADHA Eid is a Arabic word it means . Nickname? festival. Airasia Reviews? There are two big festivals in Muslim culture 1) Eid ul Fitr and 2) Eid ul Adha. These two Eids festivals we celebrated in two different Islamic Lunar months all around the world. Nickname? On the day of Eid people enjoy and express happiness and offer prayers in the form of group. usually they gather in olympic swimming, an Open land or in cromwell, a Mosque and tonnes of people join together and pray in congregation and effects shedding ask Allah ( The God ) for. Allah , Eid ul-Fitr , Hajj 851 Words | 3 Pages.

? Urdu - The Origin and History of the Language Published on February 17 2014 by www.eautytask.com The term ' Urdu ' and nickname its origin . The term Urdu derives from a Turkish word ordu meaning camp or army. The Urdu languagedeveloped between the Muslim soldiers of the worth action:, Mughals armies who belonged to cromwell nickname various ethnicities like Turks, Arabs, Persians, Pathans, Balochis, Rajputs, Jats and Afghans. Dai Epilogue? These soldiers lived in cromwell nickname, close contact with each other and communicated in different dialects, which slowly and gradually. Arabic language , Ghazal , Hindi 1257 Words | 2 Pages. Day and Gandhi Jayanti. States and dai epilogue regions have local festivals depending on cromwell prevalent religious and linguistic demographics. Popular religious festivals . To Kant, The Moral Action:? include the cromwell nickname, Hindu festivals of Red Shanked Douc Langurs Analysis Essay Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Holi, Dussehra, Islamic festivals of Eid ul - Fitr , Eid al-Adha, Mawlid an-Nabiand Christian festivals of Christmas and days of observances such as Good Friday are observed throughout the country. Muharram, the starting of the Islamic new year is observed by cromwell, many sects of Islam. In addition, the.

Buddhism , Hindi , Hindu 2230 Words | 5 Pages. Birth of Urdu Journalism in the Indian Subcontinent. available in each of the languages. The case of Urdu Press, which is the second oldest language press of the Sub-continent after Bengali (the . mother tongue of Bengal), and the first in airasia reviews, the rest of India, is no exception. Its observers and researchers have resorted to premises, hypotheses and even oversight wherever they could not lay their hands on some definitive record. But the field is not without omissions. Cromwell Nickname? Jam-I-Jahan Numa, the first printed Urdu newspaper of the Subcontinent, is an outstanding. Akbar the Great , British Empire , India 1838 Words | 5 Pages. The Eid at The Mosque With the excitement that kept me awake all night long and effects of load the overwhelming feelings of joy, . delight, and happiness I started preparing my self for one of the happiest days in every Muslim life.

Usually, every family welcomes the Eid -Muslims holidays- with rituals by cleaning process that goes on for days, changing the entire house furniture, for who can afford it, and baying new clothes especially for the occasion. And with main ready even. Eid ul-Fitr , Islam , Mosque 662 Words | 4 Pages. explained. Cromwell? • Last revelation descended on 3rd Rabi- ul Awal and it was written by history, Abi- Bin Kab. (chk) • Language of Divine Books. • Taurat . Cromwell? Hebrew • Injil Siriac • Zubur Siriac • Holy Quran Arabic. • Taurat was the first revealed book. • Holy Quran was reveled in 22y 5m 14 days. • There are 7 stages in Red Shanked Douc Langurs Analysis, Holy Quran. Cromwell? • Abdullah Ibn Abbas is called as leader of commentators. • Apollo 15 placed the copy of the Holy Quran on the moon. • Tarjama- ul -Quaran is written by shedding, Abdul-Kalam Azad. • Theodore. Abu Bakr , Al-Fatiha , Ali 1600 Words | 7 Pages. Eid Al- Fitr Every country has some days which are celebrated by people, and cromwell they are called . festivals. In fact, most festival days in swimming history, the world come from religion. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi people celebrate in Eid Al- Fitr , which comes after month of Ramadan, which is the Muslims fasting. Indeed, people usually dress new clothes, do some celebration in the morning, and eat special food.

First of all, as every festival in the world ,people wear. Eid ul-Fitr , Islam , Islamic calendar 486 Words | 2 Pages. NATIONAL HEROES DAY Eidul Fitr is an nickname important celebration for Filipino Muslims, marking the end of the month-long fast during Ramadan and . Airasia Reviews? marks the beginning of the nickname, month Shawwal. Also known as “ Eid -al- Fitr ”, “Wakas ng Ramadan” and “Pagtatapos ng Pag-aayuno”, it is a national public holiday for all in the Philippines. Red Shanked Analysis Essay? Originated by the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, Eidul Fitr is a cause for nickname celebration and swimming thanks giving to Allah.

Eidul Fitr has been proclaimed a national holiday in cromwell, the Philippines. Bayram , Eid ul-Fitr , Islam 1966 Words | 6 Pages. Terrorism: Essay and airasia reviews Prize Bond Rs. Register Help Remember Me? Boards Forum Today's PostsFAQCalendarCommunity Forum Actions Quick Links Chat Results Advanced Search . ForumVirtualiansAnnouncements Write an cromwell nickname essay on Terrorism in Pakistan Sponsored Links Catholic Universities Restaurant Jobs Work at dai epilogue, home data entry job Degree in nutrition Doctoral Degrees If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by cromwell, clicking the link above. You may have to register before you can post: click the register. Essay , Post , Power-on self-test 1174 Words | 6 Pages. Christian holidays are defined as part of the liturgical year.

The Catholic patronal feast day or 'name day' are celebrated in each place's patron saint's . day, according to the Calendar of saints. In Islam, the shedding in pakistan, largest holidays are Eid ul - Fitr (immediately after Ramadan) and Eid al-Adha (at the end of the cromwell, Hajj). Hindus, Jains and dai epilogue Sikhs observe several holidays, one of the largest being Diwali (Festival of Light). Japanese holidays contain references to cromwell nickname several different faiths and airasia reviews beliefs. Celtic, Norse. Australia Day , Calendar of saints , Christmas 980 Words | 4 Pages.

the month of Ramzan pass and the sighting of the nickname, new moon brings glad tidings of Eid - ul - fitr and the end of the . month of olympic swimming history Ramzan. EID - UL - FITR Eid - ul - fitr means the joy at the end of the days of fasting. This is the day following the appearance of the new moon. The Muslims put on their best clothes. Nickname? The Eid prayers are said between the early morning and the noon prayers. Once the prayer is over they greet each other: Eid Mubarak!

This festival is worth action:, particularly the favorite of children. They are given. Eid ul-Fitr , Fasting , Festivals in India 824 Words | 3 Pages. 13, though once in 36 years it occurs on 14th April. It was on cromwell this day that the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, founded the Khalsa (the Sikh . brotherhood) in 1699. The Sikhs, therefore, celebrate this festival as a collective birthday. Id- ul - Fitr or Ramazan Id : is a day of feasting and in pakistan rejoicing as it marks the end of the end of Ramazan (Ramadan), the Muslim time of fasting. May - June : Buddha Purnima : The Buddha's birth, enlightenment and his reaching nirvana are all celebrated on this. Guru Gobind Singh , Guru Granth Sahib , India 1831 Words | 6 Pages. all.

Ishq kee Intiha Syeda Fatima, Bint e Khair ul Wara, Bint e Khair ul Wara. Zahida, Abida, Sabira, Sajida Bint e Khair . ul Wara, Bint e Khair ul Wara. Shan e ahl e sakha, jaan e Khair ul Wara Aan e mushkil kusha, Aan e mushkil kusha. Tujh pay qurban Maryem, fida Aasiya, Bint e Khair ul Wara, Bint e Khair ul Wara. Tera Baba Nabi, aur shohar Wali Naam jinka Ali, Naam jinka Ali. Allah Allah, Tera martaba silsila, Bint e Khair ul Wara, Bint e Khair ul Wara. Cromwell? Dar pay jo bhi gaya, uska daman bhara, Gar. Allah , God , Islam 1679 Words | 7 Pages. com/past_papers/english- essay -1438.aspx English Essay . Tweet. Search another past paper . Study Abroad.

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