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Sonnet 18 - Shakespeare s Sonnets
asp net 3 5 resume Did this post help you? Click the i compare button below this post to newland archer, show your appreciation! CodeBehind=atchkstatus.aspx.cs Inherits=AbsenceTrackingSystem.atforms.atchkstatu s asp:UpdatePanel ID=ajaxUpAtHome runat=server UpdateMode=Conditional My Employee Entitlement(s) asp:GridView ID=grdChkStatus runat=server AllowPaging=true AllowSorting=true AutoGenerateColumns=false CssClass=mGrid GridLines=None OnPageIndexChanging=grdChkStatus_PageIndexChangin g OnRowCommand=grdChkStatus_RowCommand OnSorting=grdChkStatus_Sorting PagerStyle-CssClass=pgr PagerSettings FirstPageText=First LastPageText=Last Mode=NextPreviousFirstLast asp:TemplateField HeaderText=Status SortExpression=Status asp:DropDownList ID=ddlStatus runat=server AutoPostBack=true DataSource=%# GetStatusNames() % DataTextField=Status DataValueField=Status OnPreRender=SetValue OnSelectedIndexChanged=FilterDropDown_IndexChange d / asp:BoundField DataField=AbsenceRequestID HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif HeaderStyle-Font-Underline=false HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderText=ID asp:BoundField DataField=EmployeeName HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif HeaderStyle-Font-Underline=false HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderText=Employee Name asp:TemplateField HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif HeaderStyle-Font-Underline=true HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderText=VIEW ABSENCE REQUEST asp:LinkButton ID=lnkViewAbReq runat=server CommandArgument=%# ((GridViewRow) Container).RowIndex % CommandName=ViewAbsenceRequest CssClass=link Text=View Absence Request/asp:LinkButton asp:GridView ID=grdViewAbsence runat=server AutoGenerateColumns=false GridLines=None AllowPaging=true AllowSorting=true OnSorting=grdViewAbsence_Sorting CssClass=mGrid PagerStyle-CssClass=pgr Width=101% OnPageIndexChanging=grdViewAbsence_PageIndexChang ing PagerSettings Position=Bottom Mode=NextPreviousFirstLast FirstPageText=First LastPageText=Last NextPageText=Next PreviousPageText=Prev / asp:BoundField DataField=Status HeaderText=Status SortExpression=Status HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif HeaderStyle-Font-Underline=false asp:BoundField DataField=AbsenceRequestID HeaderText=ID SortExpression=AbsenceRequestID HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif asp:BoundField DataField=EmployeeName HeaderText=Employee Name SortExpression=EmployeeName HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif asp:BoundField DataField=StartDate HeaderText=Start Date SortExpression=StartDate HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif asp:BoundField DataField=EndDate HeaderText=End Date SortExpression=EndDate HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif asp:BoundField DataField=NumberOfWorkingDays HeaderText=Days SortExpression=NumberOfWorkingDays HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif asp:BoundField DataField=AbsenceType HeaderText=Absence Type SortExpression=AbsenceType HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif public partial class atchkstatus : System.Web.UI.Page. Shall. protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e) string errorMsg = string.Empty; String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAbsenceRequestModByEmpSID(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatus.Tables.Count 0) if (dsStatus.Tables.Rows.Count 0) ShowAlert(No records found!); catch (Exception ex) string sortDirection = ASC; string sortExpression = ViewState[SortExpression] as string; // Check if the School Aministration Essay same column is shall i compare, being sorted. Cable. // Otherwise, the shall i compare default value can be returned. Uk Definition Of Rape. if (sortExpression == column) string lastDirection = ViewState[SortDirection] as string; if ((lastDirection != null) (lastDirection == ASC)) DataTable dt = ViewState[DataSource] as DataTable; dt.DefaultView.Sort = e.SortExpression + + GetSortDirection(e.SortExpression); if (e.CommandName == ViewAbsenceRequest) int index = Convert.ToInt32(e.CommandArgument); GridViewRow gvcurrentrow = grdChkStatus.Rows[index]; string strStatus = gvcurrentrow.Cells.Text.ToString(); string strAbReqID = gvcurrentrow.Cells.Text.ToString(); string strEname = gvcurrentrow.Cells.Text.ToString();
string errorMsg = string.Empty; ATService objClientEmp = new ATService(); DataSet dsEmpAbs = null; String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); dsEmpAbs = objClientEmp.GetAbsenceRequestModByEmpSID(strEmpSI D, ref errorMsg); if (dsEmpAbs != null) if (dsEmpAbs.Tables.Count 0) if (dsEmpAbs.Tables.Rows.Count 0) lblViewAbsence.Text = There is shall i compare, no Absence Request ID; catch (Exception ex) DataTable dt = ViewState[ViewDataSource] as DataTable; dt.DefaultView.Sort = e.SortExpression + + GetSortDirection(e.SortExpression); string errorMsg = string.Empty; ATService objClient = new ATService(); String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAllEmployeeStatus(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatus.Tables.Count 0) if (dsStatus.Tables.Rows.Count 0) DataRow orow = dsStatus.Tables.NewRow(); //lblAbsenceRequestBy.Text = Status Type - + dsStatus.Tables.Rows.ToString(); ATService objClient = new ATService(); string errorMsg = string.Empty; String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); DataSet dsStatDesc = objClient.GetAbsenceRequestModByEmpSID(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatDesc.Tables.Count 0) if (dsStatDesc.Tables.Rows.Count 0) ShowAlert(No records found!); string temp = ddlStatus.SelectedValue.ToString(); if (ddlStatus.SelectedValue == 0) string errorMsg = string.Empty; ATService objClient = new ATService(); String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAbsenceRequestModByEmpSID(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatus.Tables.Rows.Count 0) //AbsenceRequest objAbsReq = new AbsenceRequest(); //lblReportType.Text = Status Type - All;// +dsStatus.Tables.Rows.ToString(); ShowAlert(No records found!); string strempid = ddlStatus.SelectedValue.ToString(); ATService objClient = new ATService(); String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); //DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAbsReqStatusModByEmpSID(U394231, Submit, ref errorMsg); DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAbsReqStatusModByEmpSID(strEmpSID, Submit, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatus.Tables.Rows.Count 0) //AbsenceRequest objAbsReq = new AbsenceRequest(); //lblReportType.Text = Status Type - + dsStatus.Tables.Rows.ToString(); ShowAlert(No records found!); ScriptManager.RegisterClientScriptBlock(this, typeof(Page), MyAlert, alert(' + Message + ');, true); #endregion custom method for newland archer, alert popups.
Above is the i compare design code behind.I need to belson tv, have filter set on shall i compare Status column which is the uk definition of rape 1st column while displaying grid. I Compare. Did this post help you? Click the newland archer button below this post to shall, show your appreciation! CodeBehind=atckst.aspx.cs Inherits=AbsenceTrackingSystem.atforms.atckst Title=Check My Request % asp:UpdatePanel ID=ajaxUpAtHome runat=server UpdateMode=Conditional Check My Request. The Effect Of Illegal On The US Economy. asp:GridView ID=grdChkStatus runat=server AllowPaging=true AllowSorting=true AutoGenerateColumns=false CssClass=mGrid GridLines=None OnPageIndexChanging=grdChkStatus_PageIndexChangin g OnSorting=grdChkStatus_Sorting PagerStyle-CssClass=pgr PageSize=10 Width=100% PagerSettings FirstPageText=First LastPageText=Last Mode=NextPreviousFirstLast asp:TemplateField HeaderText=Status SortExpression=Status asp:DropDownList ID=ddlStatus runat=server AutoPostBack=true OnSelectedIndexChanged=ddlStatus_IndexChanged asp:BoundField DataField=AbsenceRequestID HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif HeaderStyle-Font-Underline=false HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderText=ID asp:BoundField DataField=EmployeeName HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif HeaderStyle-Font-Underline=false HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderText=Employee Name asp:TemplateField HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif HeaderStyle-Font-Underline=true HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderText=VIEW ABSENCE REQUEST asp:LinkButton ID=lnkViewAbReq runat=server CommandArgument=%# ((GridViewRow) Container).RowIndex % CommandName=ViewAbsenceRequest CssClass=link Text=View Absence Request/asp:LinkButton asp:GridView ID=grdViewAbsence runat=server AutoGenerateColumns=false GridLines=None AllowPaging=true AllowSorting=true OnSorting=grdViewAbsence_Sorting CssClass=mGrid PagerStyle-CssClass=pgr Width=101% OnPageIndexChanging=grdViewAbsence_PageIndexChang ing PagerSettings Position=Bottom Mode=NextPreviousFirstLast FirstPageText=First LastPageText=Last NextPageText=Next PreviousPageText=Prev / asp:BoundField DataField=Status HeaderText=Status SortExpression=Status HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif HeaderStyle-Font-Underline=false asp:BoundField DataField=AbsenceRequestID HeaderText=ID SortExpression=AbsenceRequestID HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif asp:BoundField DataField=EmployeeName HeaderText=Employee Name SortExpression=EmployeeName HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif asp:BoundField DataField=StartDate HeaderText=Start Date SortExpression=StartDate HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif asp:BoundField DataField=EndDate HeaderText=End Date SortExpression=EndDate HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif asp:BoundField DataField=NumberOfWorkingDays HeaderText=Days SortExpression=NumberOfWorkingDays HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif asp:BoundField DataField=AbsenceType HeaderText=Absence Type SortExpression=AbsenceType HeaderStyle-ForeColor=#494949 HeaderStyle-Font-Names=Verdana, Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif public partial class atckst : System.Web.UI.Page. public string Status = string.Empty; string userRole = string.Empty; public static readonly string Manager = Manager; public static readonly string LocalAdmin = LocalAdmin; public static readonly string GlobalAdmin = GlobalAdmin; protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e) string userRole = SessionHandler.AbsenceTrackingRole; //if (userRole == Employee || userRole == Manager || userRole == GlobalAdmin) string errorMsg = string.Empty; String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAbChkReqByEmpSID(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatus.Tables.Count 0) if (dsStatus.Tables.Rows.Count 0) ShowAlert(No records found!); catch (Exception ex) string sortDirection = ASC; string sortExpression = ViewState[SortExpression] as string; // Check if the shall i compare same column is of rape, being sorted. Shall I Compare. // Otherwise, the to the High Aministration default value can be returned. I Compare. if (sortExpression == column) string lastDirection = ViewState[SortDirection] as string; if ((lastDirection != null) (lastDirection == ASC)) DataTable dt = ViewState[DataSource] as DataTable; dt.DefaultView.Sort = e.SortExpression + + GetSortDirection(e.SortExpression); if (e.CommandName == ViewAbsenceRequest) int index = Convert.ToInt32(e.CommandArgument); GridViewRow gvcurrentrow = grdChkStatus.Rows[index]; string strStatus = gvcurrentrow.Cells.Text.ToString(); string strAbReqID = gvcurrentrow.Cells.Text.ToString(); string strEname = gvcurrentrow.Cells.Text.ToString();
string errorMsg = string.Empty; ATService objClientEmp = new ATService(); DataSet dsEmpAbs = null; String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); dsEmpAbs = objClientEmp.GetAbChkReqByEmpSID(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); if (dsEmpAbs != null) if (dsEmpAbs.Tables.Count 0) if (dsEmpAbs.Tables.Rows.Count 0) lblViewAbsence.Text = There is uk definition of rape, no Absence Request ID; catch (Exception ex) DataTable dt = ViewState[ViewDataSource] as DataTable; dt.DefaultView.Sort = e.SortExpression + + GetSortDirection(e.SortExpression); string errorMsg = string.Empty; ATService objClient = new ATService(); String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); //DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAllEmployeeStatus(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetStatusByEmpSID(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatus.Tables.Count 0) if (dsStatus.Tables.Rows.Count 0) DataRow orow = dsStatus.Tables.NewRow(); //lblAbsenceRequestBy.Text = Status Type - + dsStatus.Tables.Rows.ToString(); //DropDownList ddlStatus = FindControl(ddlStatus) as DropDownList; //DropDownList ddlStatus = grdChkStatus.HeaderRow.FindControl(ddlStatus) as DropDownList; DropDownList ddlStatus = new DropDownList(); ATService objClient = new ATService(); string errorMsg = string.Empty; String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); DataSet dsStatDesc = objClient.GetAbChkReqByEmpSID(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatDesc.Tables.Count 0) if (dsStatDesc.Tables.Rows.Count 0) ShowAlert(No records found!); //DropDownList ddlStatus = FindControl(ddlStatus) as DropDownList; DropDownList ddlStatus = grdChkStatus.HeaderRow.FindControl(ddlStatus) as DropDownList; string temp = ddlStatus.SelectedValue.ToString(); if (ddlStatus.SelectedValue == 0) string errorMsg = string.Empty; ATService objClient = new ATService(); String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAbChkReqByEmpSID(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatus.Tables.Rows.Count 0) //AbsenceRequest objAbsReq = new AbsenceRequest();
//lblReportType.Text = Status Type - All;// +dsStatus.Tables.Rows.ToString(); ShowAlert(No records found!); string strStatus = ddlStatus.SelectedValue.ToString(); ATService objClient = new ATService(); String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); //DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAbsReqStatusModByEmpSID(U394231, Submit, ref errorMsg); //DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAbsReqStatusModByEmpSID(strEmpSID, Submit, ref errorMsg); DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAbChkReqStatusByEmpSID(strEmpSID, strStatus, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatus.Tables.Rows.Count 0) //AbsenceRequest objAbsReq = new AbsenceRequest(); //lblReportType.Text = Status Type - + dsStatus.Tables.Rows.ToString(); ShowAlert(No records found!); ScriptManager.RegisterClientScriptBlock(this, typeof(Page), MyAlert, alert(' + Message + ');, true); #endregion custom method for shall, alert popups. Transferred. if (e.Row.RowType == DataControlRowType.Header) ATService objClient = new ATService(); String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); //DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAllEmployeeStatus(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetStatusByEmpSID(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatus.Tables.Count 0) if (dsStatus.Tables.Rows.Count 0) DataRow orow = dsStatus.Tables.NewRow(); //lblAbsenceRequestBy.Text = Status Type - + dsStatus.Tables.Rows.ToString(); //DropDownList ddlStatus = (DropDownList)e.Row.Cells.Controls;//new DropDownList(); //DropDownList ddlStatus = new DropDownList(); DropDownList ddStatus = (DropDownList)e.Row.FindControl(ddlStatus); string uniqueID= ddStatus.UniqueID; int rowIndex =int.Parse(e.Row.RowIndex.ToString()); //ddlStatus = grdChkStatus.FindControl(ddlStatus) as DropDownList; //ddlStatus = grdChkStatus.HeaderRow.FindControl(ddlStatus) as DropDownList; // DataSet ds = GetStatusNames(); // DataView dv = GetStatusView(ds); // string condition = null; // DropDownList ddlStatus = (DropDownList)grdChkStatus.HeaderRow.FindControl( ddlStatus);
// if (ddlStatus.SelectedValue != All) // if (condition != null) ATService objClient = new ATService(); String strEmpSID = CookieManager.Read(strEmpSID); //DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAllEmployeeStatus(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); DataSet dsStatus = objClient.GetAbChkReqByEmpSID(strEmpSID, ref errorMsg); if (dsStatus.Tables.Count 0) if (dsStatus.Tables.Rows.Count 0) DataRow orow = dsStatus.Tables.NewRow(); //lblAbsenceRequestBy.Text = Status Type - + dsStatus.Tables.Rows.ToString(); DropDownList ddlStatus = FindControl(ddlStatus) as DropDownList;
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Sonnet 18: Section I (lines 1-8) Summary - Shmoop
Soft Tissue Repair and Healing Review. The inflammatory and repair processes are no longer simple events to shall, describe in the light of the ever increasing knowledge in this field. This review is only a brief resume of the salient events associated with tissue repair, with an of rape emphasis on the soft tissues rather than the classical 'wounds' approach. I have covered the i compare, electrical stimulation modalities for wound healing (ulcers, pressure sores etc) elsewhere (Watson, 2008). Tissue healing (or tissue repair) refers to the body's replacement of destroyed tissue by living tissue (Walter and Israel 1987) and comprises two essential components - Regeneration and Repair. Transferred Malice Definition! The differentiation between the two is based on shall the resultant tissue. Of Illegal Immigration On The Essay! In Regeneration, specialised tissues is replaced by the proliferation of surrounding undamaged specialised cells. In Repair, lost tissue is replaced by granulation tissue which matures to form scar tissue. This review concentrates on shall the events and processes associated with the Repair process.
The potential for stem cell based therapy to dominate in this field at some point in the future raises the possibility of regeneration of the damaged tissue which would be clinically preferable, but as yet this treatment option remains largely lab based, or at best, experimental in clinical practice. Probably the most straightforward way to describe the healing process (Repair) is to divide it up into broad stages which are not mutually exclusive and overlap considerably. There are several different ways to ‘divide up’ the entire process, but the allocation of 4 phases is common and will be adopted here these being BLEEDING, INFLAMMATION, PROLIFERATION and REMODELLING . In addition to the historically established texts (Walter and High, Israel, 1987; Hardy, 1989; Peacock, 1984) some more recent and detailed texts can be found at shall, Serhan et al, 2010; Granger and Senchenkova, 2010; Pitzer, 2006; Broughton et al, 2006). The key information in newland archer this paper has been previously published in Watson, 2003; 2006. A brief overview of i compare each phase is presented here before considering them in any detail. Figure 1 refers to a general arrangement of the uk definition of rape, phases. Figure 1(below) is a gross representation of the key phases of the shall, tissue repair process.
The phases identified are shown as separate entities, though in reality, they are interlinked in a very deliberate way such that one phase acts as a stimulant or initiator for the following phase. Figure 2 indicates the integrated reality of repair rather than the ‘convenient’ separate phase model. This is uk definition of rape a relatively short lived phase, and will occur following injury, trauma or other similar insult. Shall! Clearly if there has been no overt injury, this will be of little or no importance, but following soft tissue injury, there will have been some bleeding. The normal time for bleeding to stop will vary with the nature of the injury and the nature of the tissue in question. Optic Cable! The more vascular tissues (e.g. muscle) will bleed for longer and i compare, there will be a greater escape of blood into the tissues. Other tissues (e.g. ligament) will bleed less (both in terms of belson tv duration and volume). Shall I Compare! It is normally cited that the interval between injury and end of bleeding is on the US Economy a matter of a few hours (4-6 hours is often quoted) though this of course is the average duration after the average injury in the average patient. Some tissues may continue to bleed for a significantly longer period, albeit at a significantly reduced rate. The inflammatory phase is an essential component of the tissue repair process and is best regarded in this way rather than as an i compare 'inappropriate reaction' to injury.
There are, of course, numerous other initiators of the inflammatory process (e.g. repetitive minor trauma, mechanical irritation), though for the purpose of this paper, the of rape, injury model will be adopted. The inflammatory phase has a rapid onset (few hours at most) and swiftly increases in magnitude to its maximal reaction (1-3 days) before gradually resolving (over the next couple of weeks). It can result in several outcomes (see below) but in terms of tissue repair, it is normal and essential. I Compare! The onset and resolution are swifter in Letter High School Essay more vascular tissues and slower in the relatively poorly vascularised tissues. The alternative initiators of the inflammatory events include mechanical irritation, repeated minor trauma, excessive heating and cooling plus others that may be less significant in therapy such as infection and a wide range of autoimmune disorders.
The inflammatory events are essentially the same whichever 'route' is relevant for the initiation. The proliferative phase essentially involves the shall i compare, generation of the repair material, which for the majority of musculoskeletal injuries, involves the production of scar (collagen) material. The proliferative phase has a rapid onset (24-48 hours) but takes considerably longer to reach its peak reactivity, which is usually between 2-3 weeks post injury (the more vascular the tissue, the shorter the time taken to reach peak proliferative production). This peak in activity does not represent the time at which scar production (repair) is complete, but the time phase during which the of fiber, bulk of the scar material is i compare formed. The production of a final product (a high quality and functional scar) is not achieved until later in the overall repair process.
In general terms it is usually considered that proliferation runs from the first day or two post injury through to its peak at 2-3 weeks and decreases thereafter through to uk definition, a matter of several months (typically 4-6) post trauma. The remodelling phase is an often overlooked phase of repair in terms of its importance, especially in i compare the context of therapy and advantages optic cable, rehabilitation. It is neither swift nor highly reactive, but does result in an organised, quality and functional scar which is capable of behaving in shall a similar way to the parent tissue (that which it is repairing). Belson Tv! The remodelling phase has be widely quoted as starting at shall, around the advantages of fiber cable, same time as the peak of the proliferative phase (2-3 weeks post injury), but more recent evidence would support the proposal that the remodelling phase actually starts rather earlier than this, and it would be reasonable to consider the start point to shall, be in the first week. The final outcome of these combines events is that the damaged tissue will be repaired with a scar which is not a ‘like for like’ replacement of the original, but does provide a functional, long term ‘mend’ which is capable of enabling quality recovery from injury. For most patients, this is a process that will occur without the need for drugs, therapy or other intervention. It is designed to happen, and for those patients in whom problems are realised, or in whom that magnitude of the damage is sufficient, some ‘help’ may be required in order to facilitate the Letter to the Essay, process. It would be difficult to argue that therapy is shall ‘essential’ in some sense. The body has an intricately complex and balanced mechanism through which these events are controlled.
It is possible however, that in cases of inhibited response, delayed reactions or repeated trauma, therapeutic intervention is of value. It would also be difficult to argue that there was any need to change the process of tissue repair. If there is an efficient (usually) system through which tissue repair is initiated and controlled, why would there be any reason to change it? The more logical approach would be to facilitate or promote the transferred malice definition, normality of tissue repair, and thereby enhance the sequence of events that take the tissues from shall, their injured to of rape, their ‘normal’ state. This is the argument that will be followed in this paper the promotion of normality, rather than trying to achieve a better normality. The best of the shall i compare, available evidence would also support this approach. If the tissue repair process is slowed, stalled or in some way delayed, encouraging the 'normal' sequence is the uk definition of rape, best evidenced way forward. This can be achieved with the same essential techniques as those used for a 'normally' progressing repair sequence, though it may take a 'stronger' or more 'intense' therapy to initiate a tissue response. In therapy practice, our view of tissue repair is somewhat skewed by the patients that are seen. The majority of patients whose tissues are repairing 'on track' do not need therapy help in order to achieve a quality result. The majority of the shall i compare, patients that arrive in the clinical environment are those for whom the normal repair sequence has been disturbed, has not happened or is in belson tv some way delayed.
Most commonly therefore 'normal' musculoskeletal tissue repair is not routinely experienced by many therapists. The mechanism through which therapy can be effective throughout the repair sequence is becoming better understood, though as a general comment, these effects appear to i compare, be achieved by 'stimulating' rather than 'changing' the events. Inflammation is a normal and necessary prerequisite to healing (Aller et al, 2006; Hardy 1989; Serhan et al 2010 with Medzhitov (2008) providing an insightful analysis). Following the tissue bleeding which clearly will vary in extent depending on the nature of the damage, a number of substances will remain in the tissues which make a contribution to the later phases. Fibrin and fibronectin form a substratum which is hospitable to the adhesion of various cells. The complex chemically mediated amplification cascade that is responsible for both the initiation and control of the belson tv, inflammatory response can be started by numerous events, one of i compare which is newland archer trauma. Mechanical irritation, thermal or chemical insult, and a wide variety of immune responses are some of the alternative initiators, and for a wide range of patients experiencing an inflammatory response in the musculoskeletal tissues, these are more readily identified causes. For the purposes of this review, only the traumatic route will be pursued though the key events and control systems involved in an inflammatory response subsequent to mechanical irritation etc are all but identical.
There are two essential elements to shall i compare, the inflammatory events, namely the vascular and cellular cascades. Importantly, these occur in parallel and are significantly interlinked. Figure 3 summarises the essential elements of the inflammatory cascade. The chemical mediators that make an active contribution to this process are myriad. They are usefully summarised in several reviews including Jiminez and transferred definition, Jiminez, (2004) and Singer and Clark (1999). Whilst these are clearly not the newest reviews, they do provide a useful background to the topic. Smith et al (2008) provide a useful review of the mediators associated with muscle injury, whilst Molloy et al (2003) have reviewed the i compare, role of these mediators in relation to newland archer, ligament and tendon injury. I Compare! Rutkowski et al (2010) review the role of the complement cascade in relation to growth and regeneration. Advantages! A more detailed account can be found in Serhan et al (2010).
In recent years, the identification of numerous cytokines and 'growth factors' had led to several important discoveries and potential new treatment lines (e.g. Shall! Wagner et al 2003; Leung et al 2006). The effect of various therapies on the cytokine cascades is becoming more obvious with the of rape, increasing volume of shall i compare research in this field (further reference support in the latter part of belson tv this paper). In addition to the vascular changes associated with bleeding, there are also marked changes in the state of the intact vessels. There are changes in the calibre of the i compare, blood vessels, changes in the vessel wall and in the flow of blood through the vessels. Vasodilation follows an belson tv initial but brief vasoconstriction and persists for shall, the duration of the inflammatory response. Flow increases through the of fiber optic, main channels and additionally, previously dormant capillaries are opened to increase the volume through the capillary bed. The cause of this dilation is primarily by i compare, chemical means (histamine, prostaglandins and complement cascade components C3 and C5 and many others) whilst the belson tv, axon reflex and autonomic system may exert additional influences. I Compare! There is an initial increase in velocity of the blood followed by a prolonged slowing of the stream.
The white cells marginate, platelets adhere to the vessel walls and the endothelial cells swell. In addition to the vasodilation response, there is an increase in the vasopermeability of the local vessels (also mediated by numerous of the chemical mediators), and thus the combination of the vasodilation and transferred, vasopermeability response is that there is an increased flow through vessels which are more ‘leaky’, resulting in an increased exudate production. Figure 3: Key Inflammatory elements. The flow and pressure changes in the vessels allows fluid and the smaller solutes to pass into the tissue spaces. This can occur both at the arterial and venous ends of the capillary network as the increased hydrostatic pressure is sufficient to overcome the osmotic pressure of the plasma proteins. The vessels show a marked increase in permeability to plasma proteins. There are several phases to the permeability changes but essentially, there is a separation of the endothelial cells, particularly in the venules, and an increased escape of protein rich plasma to the interstitial tissue spaces. The chemical mediators responsible for the permeability changes include histamine, serotonin (5-HT), bradykinin and leukotreines together with a potentiating effect from the prostaglandins. The effect of the shall i compare, exudate is to dilute any irritant substances in the damaged area and due to the high fibrinogen content of the fluid, a fibrin clot can also form, providing an initial union between the surrounding intact tissues and a meshwork which can trap foreign particles and debris. The meshwork also serves as an aid to transferred malice, phagocytic activity (see below).
Mast cells in the damaged region release hyaluronic acid and other proteoglycans which bind with the exudate fluid and create a gel which limits local fluid flow, and further traps various particles and debris (Hardy 1989). The cellular components of the inflammatory response include the early emigration (within minutes) of the phagocytes (neutrophils; polymorphonucleocytes or PMN's) from the vessels. This is followed by several other species leaving the main flow, including monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils (Lorena et al 2002) and smaller numbers of red cells (though these leave the vessel passively rather than the shall i compare, active emigration of the white cells). Monocytes once in the tissue spaces become macrophages (Forrest 1983; Hurst et al, 2001). The main groups of chemical mediators responsible for chemotaxis are some components of the complement cascade, lymphokines, factors released for the PMN's and peptides released from the mast cells in newland archer the damaged tissue (Rankin, 2004; Egozi et al 2003; Luster, 1998; Vernon-Roberts 1988). Butterfield et al (2006) usefully consider the beneficial and the potentially detrimental effects of neutrophila and macrophages in inflammation. The PMN escapees act as early debriders of the wound. Numerous chemical mediators have been identified as having a chemotactic role, for example, PDGF (platelet derived growth factor) released from damaged platelets in the area.
Components of the complement cascade (C3a and C5a), leukotreines (released from a variety of white cells, macrophages and mast cells) and lymphokines (released from polymorphs) have been identified (see Walter and Israel 1987; Vernon-Roberts 1988; Dierich et al 1987; Smith et al 2008) These cells exhibit a strong phagocytic activity and are responsible for shall i compare, the essential tissue debridement role. Dead and dying cells, fibrin mesh and clot reside all need to uk definition of rape, be removed. As a ‘bonus’, one of the chemicals released as an end product of phagocytosis is i compare lactic acid which is one of the stimulants of proliferation the next sequence of events in Letter to the Aministration the repair process. The inflammatory response therefore results in a vascular response, a cellular and fluid exudate, with resulting oedema and phagocytic activation. Shall I Compare! The complex interaction of the chemical mediators not only advantages of fiber, stimulates various components of the inflammatory phase, but also stimulates the proliferative phase. The course of the inflammatory response will depend upon the number of cells destroyed, the original causation of the process and the tissue condition at the time of shall insult. Resolution is a possible outcome at this stage on condition that less than a critical number of cells have been destroyed. For most patients that come to our attention, this is an unlikely scenario unless tissue irritation rather than overt damage is the initiator.
There is some considerable debate with regard 'micro injury' or 'micro trauma' and whether it leads to a repair event or a resolution. Newland Archer! It is shall possible that they should result in a micro repair, and if the tissues fail to Letter Jackson Aministration, respond in shall this way, the microdamaged tissue fails to mount a repair response, thus resulting in accumulative damage and possible longer term issues. The Effect Of Illegal Immigration! This debate continues with interesting evidence e.g. Lin et al, 2004; Rompe et al, 2008; Frick and Murthy, 2010; Taljanovic et al, 2011). Figure 4: Inflammatory Outcomes. Suppuration , in the presence of infective micro-organisms will result in pus formation. Shall! Pus consists of dead cell debris, living, dead and dying polymorphs suspended in the inflammatory exudate. Clearly the presence of an transferred infection will delay the healing of a wound (Zederfelt 1979). Clearly in some areas of clinical practice, infection in the tissues is a key issue. Whilst not ignoring its importance, it will not be considered further in this context. Chronic inflammation does not necessarily imply inflammation of i compare long duration, and may follow a transient or prolonged acute inflammatory stage (Vernon-Roberts 1988).
Essentially there are two forms of chronic inflammation : either the chronic reaction supervenes on the acute reaction or may in fact develop slowly with no initial acute phase (ab initio) (Hurley 1985). Chronic inflammation ab initio can have many causes including local irritants, poor circulation, some micro-organisms or immune disturbances. Chronic inflammation is usually more productive than exudative - it produces more fibrous material than inflammatory exudate. School Aministration Essay! Frequently there is some tissue destruction, inflammation and attempted healing occurring simultaneously (Serhan et al, 2010; Metz et al, 2007;Hurly, 1985; Walters and Israel 1987). Healing/ Repair by fibrosis will most likely be taking place in the tissue repair scenario considered here. The fibrin deposits from the inflammatory stage will be partly removed by the fibrinolytic enzymes (from the plasma and PMN's) and i compare, will be gradually replaced by granulation tissue which becomes organised to form the scar tissue. Macrophages are largely responsible for US Economy Essay, the removal of the fibrin, allowing capillary budding and fibroblastic activity to proceed (proliferation). The greater the volume of damaged tissue, the greater the i compare, extent of, and the greater the density of the resulting scar tissue. Chronic inflammation is usually accompanied by some fibrosis even in the absence of significant tissue destruction (e.g.
Hurley 1985; Li et al, 2007) The effects of acute inflammation are largely beneficial. The fluid exudate dilutes the toxins and escaped blood products include antibodies (and systemic drugs). The fibrinogen forms fibrin clots providing a mechanical barrier to malice definition, the spread of i compare micro-organisms (if present) and additionally assists phagocytosis. The gel like consistency of the inflammatory exudate also makes a positive contribution by preventing the spread of the inflammatroy mediators to surrounding, intact tissues. Transportation of invading bacteria (if present) to the lymphatic system stimulates an newland archer immune response whilst the i compare, increased blood flow contributes to the increased cell metabolism necessary for the proliferative stage by increasing local oxygen content, supply of necessary nutrients and newland archer, removal of waste products. The leucocytes provide a mechanism for the phagocytosis of foreign material, bacteria, dead cells, with the neutrophils (PMN's) and monocytes (becoming macrophages) making the greatest contribution. There are several detrimental aspects of inflammation which deserve mention. Shall! Firstly the increased local hydrostatic pressure from the oedema can restrict blood flow if the injured tissue space is limited, produce pain and newland archer, therefore limit function and additionally reduce local oxygen levels. There have been suggestions that free radicals produced as a result of acute inflammatory responses may have detrimental effects on cell membrane processes as may overproduction of lysosomal enzymes from PMN activity. There are many aspects of the inflammatory events that can be influenced by therapeutic intervention, ranging from the mechanical to shall i compare, the biochemical.
There is a growing body of malice evidence to support the effects of manual and exercise therapy on the ‘soup’ of chemical mediators, cytokines and growth factors. Various therapy modalities can also exert influence when applied at appropriate doses e.g. (there are hundreds of shall these papers - this is a mini selection): Caltrioni et al (2008) link between exercise and plasma glycosaminoglycan levels Fujiwara et al (2005) - mechanical stress and belson tv, bFGF Handschin and shall i compare, Spiegelman (2008) - exercise and PGC1a Kahn and malice definition, Scott (2009) - mechanical stress and IGF Kido et al (2009) - mechanical stress and IL-11 expression Li et al (2004) Mechanical stretching and fibroblast behaviour Ostrowski et al (2000) link between exercise and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production Takao et al (2011) - mechanical stress and COX-2, interleukin-1β, PGE2. Khanna et al (2009) - LIPUS and i compare, a range of cytokine actions reviewed Leung et al (2006) ultrasound and Letter to the Jackson School Aministration Essay, TGF-β in knee ligament healing Li et al (2003) - LIPUS and various cytokines (TNF-a and TGF-β1 and IL-6) McBrier et al (2007) - US and Mechano Growth Factor (MGF) Nussbaum and Locke (2007) - US and Heat Shock Proteins Rego et al (2010) - US and i compare, PGE2 synthesis Sugita et al (2008) - US and nitric oxide (NO) Bjordal et al (2006) - laser therapy and altered prostaglandin levels in the tissue (Achilles tendon) Mesquita Ferrari et al (2011) - laser therapy, TNF-a and TGF-β Safavi et al (2008) - laser and uk definition, a range of i compare inflammatory cytokines Sawasaki et al (2009) - laser and mast cell degranulation Saygun et al (2008) - laser therapy and bFGF and advantages optic, IGF-1. Zhang et al (2004) demonstrated link between electroacupuncture and peripheral inflammatory responses Sakurai et al (2008) - magnetic fields and prostaglandin E2 secretion. In addition to the ‘classic’ modalities in this regard, it remains possible that small (endogenous) electric currents can exert an shall influence (e.g.
Watson, 2008). The application of microcurrent based therapies is thought to enhance this component of the inflammatory/repair sequence (reviewed in Poltawski and Watson, 2009) and whilst most electrical stimulation modalities do not have a direct influence on the tissue repair sequence, microcurrent based therapies do appear to be increasingly supported by the research evidence in to the High School Essay this regard. The repair process restores tissue continuity by the deposition of shall repair (scar) tissue. This is initially granulation tissue which matures to High, form scar tissue. Repair tissue is a connective tissue distinct right from the onset in shall several ways from the connective tissue native to definition, the site (Forrest 1983).
Interesting recent developments have identified that in muscle there is a degree of regenerative activity post trauma, linked to shall, the activation of a mechanosensitive growth factor and subsequent activation of muscle satellite (stem) cells (Hill et al 2003). A range of growth factors have been identified as being active in the processes of proliferation, leading again to some new potential treatments (e.g. Hildebrand et al 1998). The source of the majority of these cytokines is the inflammatory phase, thus 'turning off' or limiting the inflammatory events also reduces the optic, signal strength stimulating these proliferative events (e.g. Boursinos et al, 2009; Beck et al, 2005; Dimmen et al, 2009; Radi et al, 2005). Two fundamental processes involved in the repair are fibroplasia and i compare, angiogenesis (Figure 5).
The function of the fibroblast is to repair the connective tissue (Vanable 1989). Figure 5: Key Proliferative elements. Fibroblasts appear to migrate to the area from surrounding tissue. Of Fiber! Fibroblastic activation appears to be chemically mediated, particularly by chemicals released from the macrophages during the inflammatory stage. Shall! Fibroblasts migrate into the damaged area and proliferate within the first few days after the tissue damage.
Macrophage Derived Growth Factors (MGDF's) are a complex group of mediators responsible, at least in part for the activation of advantages optic cable fibroblasts. Alongside the fibroblastic activation, capillaries in i compare the region of the tissue damage bud and transferred malice, grow towards the repair zone. Loops and arcades are formed together with anastamoses which re-establish a blood flow through the region, providing oxygen and nutrients whilst removing metabolic and repair waste products. Oxygen is critical for many of the shall, reparative processes, but especially for collagen production (Vanables 1989, Niinikoski 1980). A wide range of growth factors and chemical mediators have been identified which exert influences on belson tv the developing capillaries. Shall! These include macrophage derived factors, PDGF, lactic acid and fibroblast growth factor (Vernon-Roberts 1988). Some of these mediators are produced during the belson tv, inflammatory phase, thus making an i compare essential link between the inflammatory and belson tv, proliferative phases. There is growing evidence that various therapies are able to (positively) influence these proliferative and angiogenic events include : Azuma et al (2001) demonstrate that LIPUS influences angiogenesis in relation to fracture healing. Reher et al (2002) demonstrate influence of ultrasound in relation to NO and PGE2 production.
Zhao et al (2004) demonstrate link between electrical stimulation and angiogenic enhancement by means of VEGF mediated response. Fitzsimmons et al (2008) demonstrate link between pulsed electric fields, chondrocyte activity and nitric oxide pathways . I Compare! Chao et al (2008) demonstrate links between shockwave therapy, TGF beta and nitric oxide pathways. Rego et al (2010) ultrasound stimulation of prostaglandin (PGE2) synthesis. Cheung et al (2011) ultrasound (LIPUS) and angiogenesis in osteoporotic fractures Kuo et al (2009) shockwave therapy increases several cytokines including VEGF in a wound healing model Bossini et al (2009) demonstrate the influence of newland archer laser therapy on the angiogenic events in wound repair Lu et al (2008) ultrasound (LIPUS) and VEGF regulation in fracture healing. Granulation tissue invasion follows the 'demolition' phase (when autolytic enzymes are released from PMN's and dead cells) (Walter and Israel 1987). The activation of shall i compare fibroblasts and capillary budding would normally occur by about the third day after the tissue insult. The combination of capillary budding and collagen production results in a more vascular than usual repair site. The fibroblasts initially produce predominantly type III collagen which will become type I collagen as the repair matures during remodelling (Walter and Israel 1987). Fibroblasts also produce fibronectins and Letter to the Jackson High School Aministration, proteoglycans which are essential components of the ground substance (Figure 5) (Walter and shall i compare, Israel 1987, Forrest 1983, Hardy 1989).
Figure 6: Fibroblast activity during proliferation. Myofibroblasts are derived from fibroblasts activated by High Essay, a variety of chemical mediators, and are responsible for wound contraction and the early strength of the shall i compare, repair. They draw the edges of the wound together, thus reducing the of Illegal Immigration US Economy, size of the final scar (Gabbiani 2003; Lorena et al 2002; Peacock 1984; Hardy 1989; Wipff et al, 2009; McAnulty, 2007). Granulation tissue matures with lymphatic development (in much the same way as capillary development), nerve fibre ingrowth and shall i compare, mast cell invasion. Collagen fibres are oriented in response to local stress thus providing tensile strength in the required directions (see Forrest 1983 and Hardy 1989 for useful collagen reviews).
As the granulation tissue matures, there is a process of devascularisation with obliteration of the lumen of the newland archer, vessels. The remodelling phase primarily involves the refinement of the collagen and shall, its associated extracellular matrix. The initial deposition of collagen produces relatively weak fibrils with random orientation With maturity, the collagen becomes more obviously oriented in line with local stresses (Culav et al 1999, Gomez et al 1991). A proportion of the original fine (Type III) collagen is reabsorbed (due to the action of collagenases) and is replaced with Type I collagen with more cross links and greater tensile strength (Vanables 1989, Forrest 1983). Collagen synthesis and lysis both occur at a greater rate in a normal wound compared with non wounded tissue as old fibrous tissue is removed and new scar tissue is The Effect of Illegal on the US Economy laid down. The maturing scar is therefore a dynamic system rather than a static one. Figure 7: Principal events of remodelling. There are several influential factors during this long phase, including physical stress. This remodelling process is i compare initiated whilst the proliferative stage proceeds, therefore providing a considerable overlap between the phases. Final remodelling will continue for months, and typically at least a year from the initial damage. See Hardy (1989) for a comprehensive consideration of The Effect of Illegal Immigration Essay collagen behaviour in remodelling and Culav et al (1999) for shall, an excellent review of collagen and its roles).
The potential mechanism by which physical stress can influence cell and tissue behaviour is usefully considered by Ingber (2003, 2008). Kahn and Scott (2009) and advantages of fiber optic cable, Killian et al (2012) provide more recent papers linking mechanical stress and tissue repair, as do Bring et al (2007) and Cyr and Ross (1998) whilst Mackey et al (2008) also provide a valuable review. It is suggested that the strength of the final repair, whilst impressive, will not match that of the pre-injury strength, as illustrated in Figure 8 (after Lin et al, 2004) Figure 8: Representation of regained tissue strength (after Lin et al, 2004) Factors known to delay healing are divided into general and local: General: Age, Protein deficiency, Low Vitamin C levels, Steroids NSAID's (inhibitory effect), Temperature (lower rate when colder) Local: Poor blood supply / ischeamia, Adhesion to bone or other underlying tissue, Prolonged inflammation, Drying of the i compare, wound, Excessive movement or mechanical stress (restarts inflammation) Clearly the effects of the whole range of therapies can not be considered in any significant detail here but in principle a therapy which is beneficial to Letter School Aministration Essay, the repair events is i compare a therapy which stimulates rather than ‘changes’ the natural sequence. Promoting or stimulating the inflammatory events is newland archer not intended to achieve a ‘bigger’ inflammatory response, but to maximise its efficiency.
Similarly, if delivering therapy during the proliferative phase, there would be no benefit in i compare simply creating a bigger volume of newland archer scar tissue. The advantage of appropriate intervention is that it stimulates a maximally efficient response, and therefore the required repair material is generated with best quality and minimal time. In the remodelling phase, the refinement of the scar tissue is the aim and the use of therapy can have a significant effect, especially given the shall, growing body of evidence relating the effects of mechanical stress and uk definition, collagen behaviour. Inappropriate therapy at any stage is perfectly capable of inhibiting these events and therefore results in a less good repair therapy is not guaranteed to be beneficial one has to be mindful of the shall i compare, events needed and be selective of the uk definition, most appropriate (evidenced) therapy at each stage. The other interesting recent development is shall i compare that there is an increasing body of knowledge which supports the idea that existing therapies have an effect on the chemical environment of the repairing tissue (Watson, 2011). Exercise therapy, manual therapy and various modalities in electrotherapy are now known to exert such effects - some examples having been provided earlier in this paper. This need not ‘replace’ the current explanations for the mode of action of therapy, but do offer an extended effects model in which there are mechanical, neurological, gross physiological, chemical and bioelectric effects of therapy. The mode of action of those therapies, historically employed, is uk definition of rape actually a lot more complex than was originally conceived and hitherto understood. Conclusion: Tissue healing is a complex and dynamic system which enables effective repair of damaged tissue. The repair control system and links between its various components are complex, and there is an ever increasing volume of literature which continues to i compare, identify new mediators, cytokines and variants.
Whilst this knowledge base continues to expand, the optic cable, links between the effects of therapy and shall, these chemical control systems is also growing. There is little doubt that appropriate therapy has the capacity to influence the process in a positive way and the most logical and definition, best evidenced approach to intervention is to stimulate or promote the ‘normal’ events rather than trying to i compare, change them to transferred, something better. If repair is underway, then keep it moving. If it is i compare delayed, then stimulate it in order to help get it back on track. Whilst there are myriad approaches, those that are most effective appear to follow this philosophy.
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Ultrasound stimulates nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production by newland archer, human osteoblasts. I Compare! Bone 31(1): 236-241. Rompe, J. D., J. P. Furia, et al. (2008). Mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy--current options for treatment. Disabil Rehabil 30(20-22): 1666-1676. Rutkowski, M. J., M. E. Sughrue, et al. (2010). The complement cascade as a mediator of tissue growth and regeneration. Inflamm Res 59(11): 897-905.
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Saygun, I., S. Karacay, et al. (2008). Effects of laser irradiation on the release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and receptor of uk definition IGF-1 (IGFBP3) from gingival fibroblasts. Lasers Med Sci 23(2): 211-215. Serhan, C. N., P. I Compare! A. Ward, et al. Letter School Aministration Essay! (2010). Shall! Fundamentals of Letter High School Essay inflammation. Cambridge ; New York, Cambridge University Press. Singer, A. J. and R. A. Shall I Compare! Clark (1999).
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Current books on shall i compare Electrotherapy with brief descriptions and newland archer, links to Amazon pages for shall i compare, purchase. Some common answers to the most frequently asked questions on Electrotherapy, particularly in of fiber optic the area of Contraindications.
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Tag Archives: Business Recovery Plan (BRP) Most organizations don’t want to imagine what would happen if a disaster struck their operation, but what if a disaster did strike. How would your organization respond? The best way to know how to respond is to develop, implement and maintain a Business Continuity Management (BCM) program. A BCM program provides a framework for shall i compare building organizational resiliency with effective responses and transferred malice, safeguards that protect its reputation, stakeholders, employees, and facilities. BCM is not just about shall i compare, remedying technology shortfalls, as many organizations believe. It’s also about of fiber optic, securing, protecting, communicating and preparing corporations from disastrous impacts upon shall i compare, its workforce, facilities and its technologies – To minimize the impact on operations.
BCM touches every aspect of an optic, organization from the mailroom, the field and i compare, the call centre to the manufacturing floor and right up to the boardroom. To make your program effective, consider some of the following suggestions when planning: 1. Start With the Worst – Begin the planning with the worst-case situation your organization can imagine. The Effect On The Essay? For many, this example is the tragic events of September 11, 2001. Work backwards from there and you’ll start to fill in shall many of the advantages of fiber optic cable dangers that can harm your corporation. You’ll also be able to start challenging the worst case situation and begin to get more inventive with potential impacts – and develop the plan accordingly. 2. 3 Pillars of a Business Continuity Plan (BCP) – Every BCP plan must address three things; Workforce Availability, Facility Availability and Technology Availability. If each plan has these three core components, an organization can respond to any disaster situation and expand their capabilities by adding varying situations and scenarios through validation exercises. 3. Dedicated Resource – Assign a person with the appropriate training and authority to get things done, if not, the program will quickly fall to the wayside in favour of other initiatives. This may include getting outside help to shall get the process kick-started (i.e. consultants, contactors etc).
4. BCM Program vs. BCM Project – The BCM program must live on advantages optic and continually meet the needs of an i compare, organization, as it grows and changes; so to uk definition of rape must the BCM program. Shall I Compare? A project has an end date but a program must live and breathe and contain more than just a single aspect of BCM. Therefore, when the Business Impact Analysis (BIA) is completed, that’s just one ‘project’ of the overall BCM program; you’ve got lots more to Immigration on the get through and develop. 5. Exercising/Testing – Plans mean nothing if they haven’t been validated. Every organization must exercise its plans to make sure they’ll work during a disaster. It’s better to find gaps in your plans through exercising and under controlled circumstances rather than when the real thing happens. 6. Executive Support – If no one is shall, there to champion the BCM program, it won’t last too long. In fact, there’s a good chance it will run out of steam and end up on the backburner of boardroom discussions.
Having executive support shows the rest of the organization that BCM is Letter Jackson High Aministration, taken seriously. 7. Awareness Training – It can take a long time to develop continuity plans and create processes and procedures but if no one knows how to use them, where they’re kept or under what circumstances they’re required, they won’t be of any value or use. I Compare? Remember, awareness and of fiber optic cable, training are not the same things and every level of the organization must received its fair share of both if the i compare program (and all the developed plans and processes) are to of fiber be useful and successful. 8. Focus on People – This should be a no brainer; BCM is about people. It’s people that build the plans, use the shall i compare plans, review and exercise the newland archer plans. It’s people that will be impacted by not having plans in place; clients, vendors, employees and communities. If you state that technology availability is the shall most important part, you’ve basically told those individuals – who you need to help build plans – that they aren’t important. Optic Cable? Keep in mind; people first. 9. Business Impact Analysis (BIA) – Every company must understand what it does and how it does it. A BIA is the process of analysing business functions and the effect that a disruption might have upon them.
Knowing this will help corporations develop appropriate Business Continuity Plans (BCP) and other contingency strategies. Ensure you get agreement on the findings, don’t just state what they are and move forward. The findings from a BIA are what the attendees believe is important and it could turn out that what they feel is important to i compare the company is not what executives believe is important. Make sure executives are in agreement with the findings before you start developing restoration and recovery plans – you could be way off the mark. 10.
Program Maintenance and transferred definition, Monitoring – If program components aren’t maintained and updated the shall i compare Business Continuity strategies developed – and the related documentation – will reflect the of fiber corporation as it once was, not as it current is. 11. I Compare? Bonus: Using Software Only – Software can be very beneficial for maintaining and gathering information but beware, it doesn’t take into account the nuances of people or scenarios specifics. It may tell you that you need 10 desktops in 24 hours but the situation itself may call for Jackson High School Essay something completely different based on what has occurred. Don’t fall into the trap that DR/BC software will answer all your questions and shall, save you; it’s a tool to help you. Having a BCM program in uk definition of rape place is a part of an organizations Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) but there are other benefits to implementing a program. First, your organization will have the security in knowing a robust plan is in place to deal with disasters, providing safety and security for shall i compare all employees. Second, a proper BCM program will provide a competitive advantage. Those organizations will strong programs win out over organizations that don’t have BCM plans in place because there is knowledge that your organization will have developed a way to provide a product or service even during a disaster.
It’s not easy building a BCM program; it can be tough to develop, implement and maintain but it will only take a single crisis or disaster to prove its worth. Transferred? A single crisis or disaster can be one too many. Are you prepared? BCM document templates available in the ‘shop’ section at http://www.stone-road.com. New Book by A.Alex Fullick – Business Impact Analysis (BIA): Building the shall Foundation for a Strong Business Continuity Program. We’re so happy to advantages optic announce the shall i compare new book release by StoneRoad founder, A.Alex Fullick. Checkout the press release below. For purchase details go to http://www.stone-road.com of Jackson High School Essay http://www.amazon.com. Alex Fullick wants you – and your business – to succeed. Shall I Compare? Better yet, he wants you to flourish beyond your wildest dreams.
But what Alex Fullick knows (and what you may not yet know) is that business success doesn’t come out of the advantages blue, or on a whim or stroke of luck. You have to plan for business success, not only for the anticipated good times of strong sales, revenues and profits, but also for the difficult days when a sudden disaster strikes. It can – and does – happen. Welcome, then, to the world of Business Continuity Management (BCM), the world where BCM expert Alex Fullick resides. Over the years, he has seen it all – and the one key conclusion he’s reached is that businesses with a plan to shall deal with significant disruptions and disasters are generally the ones that emerge from the situation stronger and belson tv, with their operations intact. The reverse is just as true: an organization without a continuity plan is taking an enormous risk, one that has the potential to shall destroy the company and lay waste to years of hard work. Fullick acknowledges that, to most eyes and cable, ears, the very notion of “Business Continuity Management” is a term that might cause the shall ears to Letter to the School Aministration Essay shut down and the eyes to glaze over. It may be a dry topic, rather lacking in sex appeal, but it is also a very important cog in shall i compare your business-planning machine. Simply put, if you are a business owner or key manager, you need to know exactly what you will do when disaster strikes. Fullick’s most recent planning guidebook is belson tv, entitled Business Impact Analysis: Building the shall Foundations for a Strong Business Continuity Program, takes a detailed look at the steps a business owner needs to of fiber take to i compare gather the information required to create and definition, manage a strong business continuity program.
The BIA, in Fullick’s view, is the shall i compare foundation upon which a business continuity program is built; it follows, then, that a proper Business Impact Analysis requires strength and Letter Aministration Essay, depth and that its content must fully reflect the operational and cultural needs of your organization. Shall? There is no single cookie-cutter approach that can be applied to each and every business operation. This book should be required reading for business owners and senior corporate officials, not only because the subject is itself of vital importance, but also because Fullick lays out his BIA foundation in a straightforward contextual manner that is both appealing and uk definition of rape, highly informative. Business Impact Analysis is a critical building process – and Fullick provides the tools required in an easy to follow systematic approach so that organizational leaders can use the BIA process to its very best advantage. Alex Fullick is the founder and managing director of StoneRoad, a business consultancy based in Southern Ontario that specializes in a process known as Business Continuity Management (BCM).
Fullick published his first work in 2009 entitled Heads in the Sand; he followed that up with Volumes 1 and 2 of Made Again. Business Impact Analysis is his fourth publication with two further publications in shall i compare the works. In his free time, Fullick is an advantages optic, avid curler and hiker. Business Impact Analysis: Building the Foundation for a Strong Business Continuity Program. by A. Shall? Alex Fullick. The 6 “C’s” of Crisis Management Communications. While in newland archer China I had an interesting conversation with a gentleman from China (he spoke English). Our main topic was Emergency Management but as we conversed, he kept making note of a few things related to Crisis Management and each one seemed to begin with the shall letter “C”. To The Jackson School Aministration Essay? I don’t know if it was something that was intentional or if it was something that was just coming across due to the language difficulties between us, which I didn’t find that difficult by the way.
Anyway, I thought I’d make note of them and provide a description of what he was getting across. In every crisis, disaster or emergency situation, which he was defining as a larger community based disaster such as an shall i compare, earthquake (hey, he was part of the Great Sichuan Earthquake of malice 2008, China). Listening to him was fascinating, as he was actually there and a part of the recovery and coordination efforts related to the massive Chinese earthquake that killed 10’s of thousands – if not more. I Compare? So here are the newland archer 6 C’s of Crisis Management – and shall i compare, I haven’t put them in newland archer any specific order in shall i compare case you’re wondering… Contain – First, get a grip on the situation and don’t let it spread any further and do any more damage that it already has. I guess a good example of his would be a fire and how fire fighters contain a blaze. Even firefighters fighting brush fires burn a perimeter (a controlled burn) to ensure the fire stays contained within a certain area. I know some of of rape you will have experience on this disaster, so feel free to shall i compare add details on how that’s done. It’s in every organization’s best interest to ensure that a situation doesn’t get out of newland archer control – so contain it and don’t let the situation spread. Control – Take charge of the shall i compare situation and don’t wait for advantages of fiber optic it to shall i compare play out in front of you – it could be too late.
If an organization doesn’t take control of the situation – through media and its Crisis Team structure – someone or something else will take control of Immigration it for you. For instance, if there’s no media represented updates on the situation, then speculation and rumour will begin to run rampant. Try then to gain control of the shall i compare situation – it will be next to impossible because the media (bless ‘em) will begin to make its own assumptions and presentation on what the situation is. You’ll be fighting two fires now; the situation itself and the possible misrepresentation in the media. Take command of the situation. Command – This referred to the various components and members of the Crisis Team and Crisis Team structures (I.e. Disaster Teams).
Take charge of the situation (…is that another “C”?) and ensure that you’re on top of of fiber cable things. You can even be on top of things if you don’t have the i compare full scale and scope of the situation yet. You do this by taking command and having proper protocols – that have been rehearsed and uk definition, validated – that everyone understands and shall, utilizes to ensure the advantages of fiber situation is under control. It outlines proper roles and shall, responsibilities that team members follow to allow proper response, crisis management, restoration and recovery efforts to be initiated. Continue – This is what you want most for you business operations, right?
After any disaster or crisis, you want to be able to The Effect of Illegal Essay continue your operations one way or another and i compare, usually the belson tv sooner the better. Shall? The longer you’re out the greater the impact will be on your bottom line, community, shareholders, clients and employees. All your plans and Letter Aministration, procedures should be in shall place not just to address and advantages optic, manage the crisis but to allow your operations to shall continue. Managing a crisis effectively doesn’t mean your business will continue. Business Continuity will work when the crisis is being managed effectively, if not, you’re going to end up diverting resources to ‘fire fighting’ rather than ensuring the business continues. Of Fiber? They go together and i compare, if you don’t have one without the of rape other, it’s like walking a straight line while jumping on a pogo stick cross-eyed.
Communicate – Communicate quickly, often and effectively. You’ve got more audiences that you think you have and they will all need to shall be addressed. The Board of Directors will be seeking different levels of information than what the to the Jackson High Essay public is shall i compare, seeking, which is different than what your employees need. Don’t just spit out generic comments and expect everyone to newland archer understand it. I Compare? Not every message is received the same way – and if you’ve got different people delivering the message, then you can expect differences in delivery as well. What ever you do, don’t say “No comment” or “Off the Record” – that’s just asking for transferred definition trouble. There’s not such thing as off the record – not in today’s world of shall i compare technology and if you say ‘no comment’ it’s interpreted as something is of rape, being hidden. If media – or anyone for that matter – thinks your hiding something or lying, you’re going to be “guilty” in shall the eyes of everyone who heard the message. And those that didn’t hear it, will read and on the US Economy, see it on the news. Refer back to i compare the comments in #2.
Care – Show you care about people, especially those impacted by the situation. This includes your employees. Often, corporations will talk about the belson tv impact on customers and clients but forget the employees. Wouldn’t that make employees feel they aren’t cared for? After all, they are the ones closest to, and the first ones influenced, by i compare, the situation (assuming an internal fire or other crisis). Malice? I read recently a great article that said, speak and shall i compare, communicate to people’s emotions and how they see the disaster, not how you – the organization – sees it.
You have a better chance of controlling and containing situation is you speak the hearts and minds of people rather than to the pocketbooks of shareholders and bank managers, or worse, speak as you’re the victim. I liked what he had to say overall and uk definition, was busy in the back of my mind comparing his thoughts and comments to BCM and how he was also describing the crisis management component of BCM. I Compare? I know his perspective was large grander but the principles were all the on the US Economy same. I could go on and on into more detail but I have a 2 nd and 3 rd book to complete first – maybe this topic will make it on the list of other items to write about (I’ve a list of shall 11 books so far…). I think I should add that after our discussion he was presenting at the conference I was attending in Beijing (The International Emergency Management Society – TIEMS) and he only seemed to make note of 4 C’s. But then again I was listening to his speech through a translator and he may have said all 6 from our discussion but the translator may have missed it. Of Fiber Optic? May be the shall 2 C’s were ‘ Lost in Translation’ ha ha. The new book by advantages cable, S tone R oad founder, A.Alex Fullick, MBCI, CBCP, CBRA, ITILv3, “Heads in i compare the Sand: What Stops Corporations From Seeing Business Continuity as a Social Responsibility .” Available at www.stone-road.com ** 10 Things That Can Go Wrong with BC / DR Tests Without a Sponsor. Every major initiative – or project – within an organization has a sponsor; someone that champions the newland archer project and supports everyone involved. Ultimately, they are the i compare one paying for on the the project; resources, employees, technology equipment, contractor/consultants and anything else required to make the project execute to i compare a successful implementation and conclusion; a Business Continuity / Disaster Recovery test is no different.
A sponsor – which ideally should be a high level executive (“C” level if possible) – also participates in determining the scope of the test; what they want to see tested and even who should be involved. It’s up to the test coordinator (or Project Manager) to organize the information and Immigration on the US Economy, determine what can be tested and if there any components of the what the sponsor wants that can’t be tested. It doesn’t mean the sponsor is in charge of the planning, that is left to the designated test coordinator, though the sponsor is the shall designated individual at the executive level responsibility of the test. Not obtaining Executive support can cause many problems for the test coordinator, test participants and the overall test itself. Of Fiber Optic? Without Executive support, the following can occur; 1. No financial support (for accommodations, overtime pay, contract amendments if there are requirements for shall i compare a 3rd party vendor, travel expenses, technical and non-technical resources etc); 2. Teams can (and will) back out of the of rape test for other priorities especially those that have executive support;
3. Team members can change numerous times, which disrupts continuity during planning and execution efforts; 4. Issues and risk may not be resolved or mitigated respectively; 5. Scope creep has a greater chance of take root; 6. Objectives can be misunderstood and translated differently by various teams and team members; 7. Timelines and deliverables may not be adhered to; 8. The test can be cancelled without any notice in lieu of other initiatives; 9. No recognition for all the shall i compare hard work put in by testing participants through all stages of the definition test; 10. Other Executive Management may not respond to issues requiring their input.
A sponsor also adds value to a test – and so much more – and to i compare other BCM / DR program. Here are the things that a sponsor does offer: 1. Provides financial support; 2. Determines the scope of the test; 3. Designates the test coordinator to carry out the belson tv sponsor’s directives (this means they give them authority); 4. I Compare? Assists and determines goals and objectives; 5. Provide approval of any deviations from approved scope via Project Change Requests (PCR); 6. Provides a voice for Business Continuity Management at the Executive boardroom table;
7. Resolves conflicts when it cannot be managed at the test coordinator level; and. 8. Provides moral support and guidance to the test coordinator and other test team members. Having a sponsor is key component to success, so ensure you have one or else your program and tests will become the disaster. (c) StoneRoad 2013. BCM/DR Books by A. Immigration On The US Economy? Alex Fullick available from the following sources: 12 Things NOT to Include in Your BCM / DR Plan. When disaster – or a crises – strikes, organizations must be able to i compare refer to a plan to help guide them through the tasks they need to consider executing to respond, restore and recover, systems and operations. Malice? All to often when a BCM / DR plan is shall i compare, pulled off the uk definition of rape shelf or printed from a file, one ends up with a document that is huge in nature and i compare, breadth though rather slim and small in newland archer usable content.
This is because many organization put everything they can think of into their BCM/DR plans, which more times that naught, overshadows the actual content needed to be followed; the stuff that provides the detail on what to do. A BCM / DR plan should be action oriented not full of irrelevant information; irrelevant at the time of disaster, not irrelevant to i compare the overall program. I tend to Immigration on the follow a specific rule of thumb that says if there aren’t action items listed by Page 5, then it’s not an action oriented plan. It might address audit concerns, legal arguments and executive expectations but for i compare the user – the one executing activities – it doesn’t address what they need and doesn’t provide it in a clear and concise manner. So, noted below are a dozen things that shouldn’t be in newland archer your BCM / DR plan; the plan needed by users. It doesn’t mean that some of these things aren’t available in another document; an over-arching BCM program document.
1. Distribution Lists (Program Level): You can keep these separate, as names and positions will change constantly. It’s better to keep this separate, as it offers no value to the action plan. 2. Shall? Methodology Utilized: Sure you have a documented strategy for how you’re going to transferred malice develop the program – and plans – but again, there’s no reason to have this in i compare the plans themselves. It just adds more useless information to the plan and isn’t relevant when activities need to be executed. 3. Program Assumptions: You may have some assumptions related to the plan and they should only The Effect of Illegal Immigration Essay be those attributed to the plan. Program level assumptions should be kept separate and in a program document – not a plan.
4. Meetings / Schedules / Attendees: Who really needs to know who attended a meeting(s) in the past? No one that’s executing activities needs to know this. You may need to keep track of meeting attendees during the shall i compare disasters, but not those planning meetings. They can be kept separately. 5. Maintenance Schedule (Program Level): How you monitor and maintain the various plans should be kept in a central location and kept at the program level. Newland Archer? Can you imagine the confusion you’d have if you kept this type on information in every single plan? Repetition all over the place and most of i compare it out of sync. 6. Of Fiber? Names: The names of individuals change constantly due to new hires, those that leave their position and i compare, those that are promoted. Cable? Try to use position titles whenever possible – it’ll make it easier. 7. Document Audience: This is like the distribution lists and should be kept separate – if it’s even needed. The audience for i compare an action-oriented plan should be anyone in the organization because you never know who has to pick it up and use it.
Keep in mind, the audience isn’t always the same group that has a copy of the plan. 8. BCM / DR Program Descriptors: You can define the program in malice a program document but don’t redefine it for a plan. 9. Shall I Compare? Document Approvals / Signoffs: For audit purposes, it’s always a good idea to keep track of signoffs in on the Essay a separate document. 10. Project Management / Definition: Just like ‘Methodology’ you don’t need to define how you created the plan. That information can be kept separately in shall a program document or a document that outlines how plans were to be developed. Incorporating it into the plan itself is unnecessary fluff used only to increase the page count. 11. Reporting Mechanisms: Only those reporting mechanisms that are needed to The Effect of Illegal US Economy execute the plan should be in the document. There shouldn’t be the overall reporting strategy in a document that details how to shall i compare rebuild the mainframe.
12. To The Jackson High Essay? Program Overview: If you have a plan that details how to vacate the facility due to a fire, do you really need pages and pages that describe how the shall rest of the program operates and High Essay, what other functions are part of the program? No. What you do need though is to i compare ensure that there is a link to the next stage of the program – the next plan – that needs to be activated/executed because of the disaster. 13. (BONUS) Test and exercise results and documentation.
This information is still good to have but it’s not relevant when a plan needs to be activated and followed. it’s just extra fluff that hides the information users really need in their documents. Keep your test and exercise results in newland archer documents related to tests. Test information isn’t action-oriented and won’t help anyone in a disaster. The larger the plan (document) the shall harder it is to follow and the longer it’ll take people to of fiber optic find what steps they need to execute / implement. If the document is kept action-oriented, then the shall i compare fluff materials aren’t needed. All the fluff can be kept in newland archer a separate document at the program level so that its kept for audit and regulatory purposes – where applicable – and the plan can be better followed and utilized during a real disaster.
Just remember, the KISS principle (and I don’t mean Gene Simmons here): Keep It Simple Stupid! © StoneRoad (Stone Road Inc) 2013. “Heads in the Sand: What Stops Corporations From Seeing Business Continuity as a Social Responsibility” and “Made Again Volume 1 – Practical Advice for Business Continuity Programs” by StoneRoad founder, A.Alex Fullick, MBCI, CBCP, CBRA, ITILv3. 10 Questions to Ask Your Partners/Suppliers about BCM / DR. Organizations do not work in isolation; they require suppliers, vendors, partners and clients/customers. I Compare? Without any of Immigration on the US Economy these and organization cannot – and does not – operate. Even an organization that might be the only provider of a service or product still needs someone to provide it raw materials before it can sell them to vendors and clients.
Thus, if any supplier or vendor – either upstream or downstream – experiences an outage, the organization will begin to suffer as well. For example, when Toyota experienced a disaster due to the Japanese Earthquake and resulting tsunami, many manufacturing plants around the globe later experienced issues. Shall I Compare? They had to belson tv cut back shifts or in some business instances, the business had to close for shall a short time until supplies from Japan could be received once more. The disaster may have been present in one part of the world but its impact was felt around the globe. As a result, it’s important for all organizations to understand what to do when one – or more – of transferred malice their partners experience a disaster.
It’s not an organizations responsibility to tell another what to do during a disaster (meaning, documenting a plan for them) but it is every organizations responsibility to understand the shall basics of what they need to do when a partner is operating in disaster mode? Do you continue to uk definition operate? Do you temporarily stop making a product? Do you ship your product to a temporary location or stop shipping altogether? Do you want your vendors and partners to do – or not do – something specific when you have a disaster?
Expectations must be understood by all parties involved when it comes to disasters. In fact, sometimes having a well documented and validated BCM / DR program can make all the difference to whether an organization chooses a specific vendor over another. Here are some basic questions you can ask a potential vendor or supplier. 1. Shall I Compare? Do you have a Business Continuity / Disaster Plan (or program) in place? 2. School Aministration Essay? Have you ever experienced a major business disruption and how did you handle it?
3. Shall I Compare? What where the long term impacts to your organization? 4. Do you validate your BCP / DR plans on a regular basis? 5. Newland Archer? Do you have dedicated resources (with assigned roles responsibilities) to address disruptions (incidents, crises, disasters) when they occur? 6. Do you provide financial support to your BCM / DR program? 7. Do you have Senior Management / Executive support and sponsorship for you BCM / DR program? 8. Shall I Compare? What is of fiber cable, your basic response, restoration and recovery strategy? (Note: They may be reluctant to shall i compare provide details, which one would expect, though they should be able to provide a high-level overview of what steps they would execute if a disaster occurs.)
9. Do you review (validate) your BCM / DR requirements on a regular basis? 10. What makes your program better than your competitors? 11. Bonus Question: How do you manage change in your organization and does BCM / DR reflect those changes? Depending on the nature of your operation and the responses to Essay the questions above, you will probably have follow up questions that need asking. Shall I Compare? Be very weary of anyone who tends to downplay the importance of BCM / DR and corporate resiliency because if they aren’t providing you information that makes you comfortable just think what it’ll be like when a disaster occurs. Remember, they may be the one’s experiencing a disaster but it’s still could have a significant impact upon you. © StoneRoad (Stone Road Inc) 2013.
“Heads in the Sand: What Stops Corporations From Seeing Business Continuity as a Social Responsibility” and “Made Again Volume 1 – Practical Advice for Business Continuity Programs” by StoneRoad founder, A.Alex Fullick, MBCI, CBCP, CBRA, ITILv3. 9 Things to Know When Presenting BCM / DR to Senior Executives. Recently I attended a great conference on a subject connected to the Emergency Management and Preparedness industry. It was quite informative and as I always try to do, left with greater knowledge than when I arrived; always taking with me information that can help boost any potential gaps in Business Continuity Management, Disaster Planning Management, Crisis Communications and belson tv, Emergency Management. It certainly did provide some great insights. However, I found that due to many of the attendees and presenters – many of which were scientists and researchers – the message they were trying to convey sometimes got lost during their presentations.
It was because they were incredibly intelligent and brilliant in their thinking, they could not speak to the audience; they were speaking at i compare, the audience. Often, many of them had the The Effect US Economy same end-message, where governments and organizations need to step up and take their topics seriously but it got me thinking; if I can’t understand some of shall i compare what is Letter to the Jackson High School, being said – and shall, I’m in the industry – how are governments and organizations going to take the message(s) seriously? They won’t be able to because they aren’t able to understand the transferred message. So I started writing some notes that would inevitably help presenters when speaking or presenting in front of others. Shall? If you can manage a few of these your message will be better received – and understood. 1. No Gaps: Don’t leave anything out of the message you’re trying to convey. Make sure you state the past experiences and of fiber optic, state of the shall organization as well as your desired end state. An author doesn’t tell half the story or leave anything out; at some point the of rape entire story is there for the reader. This must be true to BCM/DR/ERM; tell the entire message you’re conveying.
2. Verbiage to a Minimum (Slides): If you’re going to use PowerPoint slides, don’t overload them with tons of i compare verbiage. Simply keep this in mind; do you want the audience to listen to you or read the slides, ignoring you? Choose wisely. 3. Not Just Data / Facts and Real Examples: Providing a ton of numbers won’t help get your message across – unless you’re an accountant. Since that’s not always the case, data – too much of it – will only get people to think of something else while they wait for newland archer you to shall i compare finish your talk.
Provide real example – even some from you own corporation – that illustrates your comments and position. Even provide good (and bad) examples from of fiber optic cable your competitors because if they’ve had a bad experience, which you can learn from – that’s the shall best example you can use. 4. Know the Value of advantages of fiber optic BCM: If you’re going to present the good points of BCM to Senior Executives, really think through the value that BCM will bring to the organization. Too often it’s thought of as an expense but if you’ve thought through how it adds value to the organization, then you’re offering something that executives will listen to and buy into to. 5. Know the Stakeholders: When presenting in shall i compare from on definition Senior Management, many believe that they are the stakeholders. Well, as with other internal resources (i.e. employees) that’s correct though they aren’t the only stakeholders. Remember to shall i compare think of external partners, vendors and suppliers; they are stakeholders too and if they have a disaster your organization is impacted. If you have a disaster, they have an impact upon you and these dependencies must be understood by executives.
6. Acronyms: Simply put, people aren’t automatons or robots so don’t speak like one. Not everyone knows what they mean and with so many acronyms around these days, you could use one that has a completely different meaning than what you intend. If that happens, you’ve lost your audience because they simply don’t understand you. So if you’re speaking your language make sure you translate your words so they understand you. 7. Advantages Cable? Use of Assumptions: Many people forget that assumptions are those things you believe to be true; either in a disaster, during planning or in some other area.
If you start quoting assumptions – especially in front of executives – make sure you investigate your assumptions first. Shall? And those you can’t clarify, make sure that during your planning efforts you either prove they are correct or prove them wrong. In the end, if you don’t clarify your assumptions, you could cause major headaches when a disaster occurs. 8. Be Relevant: Speak to uk definition of rape your industry and i compare, your organization. Yes, some examples may represent others but stick with what you’re really after; getting BCM/DR/ERM buy in from your own organization. If you speak too much about others – especially other industries other than your own – you’re not being relevant at all. Newland Archer? You’re wasting time – yours and theirs. 9. The Right Presenter: If you don’t know how to shall i compare present or don’t know how to present, then get someone who is. You can still be there to answer questions and coach them ahead of time but if you’re not the newland archer right person to get the message across, get someone who is. It will make a huge difference if the message comes across with confidence rather than coming from someone who shows insecurity and stutters/stammers through the presentation.
Feel free to shall join a Toastmasters group to help build your presentation skills. We all want our presentations to be understood and welcomed and we have to uk definition of rape know how to present our ideas effectively. I Compare? If we don’t learn how to do that, we might end up with BCM being pushed to newland archer the backburner so make sure you get their attention right from the shall i compare start; it could end up being the only opportunity you get. “Heads in the Sand: What Stops Corporations From Seeing Business Continuity as a Social Responsibility” and “Made Again Volume 1 – Practical Advice for newland archer Business Continuity Programs” by StoneRoad founder, A.Alex Fullick, MBCI, CBCP, CBRA, ITILv3.
StoneRoad Announces New Document Templates to shall i compare Help Your BCM / DR Program!! StoneRoad is happy to announce that we now have more BCM / DR document templates available for purchase from our shop at www.stone-road.com. We’ve said it before and we’ll say it again; everything we do is to help you and your corporation move forward with your Business Continuity / Disaster Planning programs. To help with that, we’ve now got the following document templates available: Each comes with built in ‘how-to’ notes so that you can work your way through the of Illegal Immigration Essay documents and help build your program. Each is build in a modular format so you can either copy/paste components when you need more room or delete components when you don’t. We’re working on more templates for 2013…so we’ve only just begun to shall i compare give you tools you need. The StoneRoad Team. 7 Things to Consider When Using an Online BCM / DR Document Template.
I recently read a trade magazine where an author noted that many of the BCM / DR templates available on line just weren’t good enough and didn’t meet the needs of those searching for Immigration on the US Economy them. I don’t believe this to be correct. There are many templates available – for free or for purchase – and each provide a unique user experience based on the industry for which if was developed. I Compare? Users develop their templates based on what they need and their goals and objectives, which aren’t the same for like-companies and industries. What one organization is trying to accomplish may be different from another organization, thus, the template (or overall document and approach) will be different. Advantages Cable? But if both of the organizations place their templates on line for other to i compare use – and learn – then they are both good for of rape use. Shall? The trick is for those of us in another organization to pick the right template for our needs between the two that are available. I heartily offer thanks to those that put templates on line to help other and hope it continues.
They have helped me over the years and to the Essay, have been great starting points. Even today (almost 18 years later in the BCM industry), I look to see if there is shall i compare, a template for newland archer something on shall i compare line that might help spark some ideas to malice build a specific type of plan or process – and shall, not just for belson tv BCM/DR, but for Project and Program Management. The sharing of documentation, templates and shall i compare, ideas over the internet is wonderful, so I strongly believe that any template that’s available is a good one; we just need to identify if it suits our needs and whether we can use it or not. If it’s been developed and placed on line, it obviously met someone’s need – it might meet yours. So here are a few tips when looking at templates for use in your BCM / DR program.
What Works For You: If you’re new to BCM/DR, a word or excel file may suit you’re needs, as you may not be able to utilize an expensive 3 rd party application, so use what works for transferred you . Scalability/Change: Be sure that you can modify the template to suit your needs. Perhaps there are additional questions you want to include so you want to be able to add (or delete/modify) where you need to. Like-Minded Industry: Seek those templates that were developed by shall i compare, someone in your industry. If you’re in the financial services sector a template build by someone the manufacturing industry might not meet your needs. Keep it Simple: Sometimes the simplest template is the easiest to get you started and is usually has the ability to be changed (as noted above). So don’t get something that requires you to waste time and malice definition, resources trying to figure out how it works. Supported: I don’t mean by the person that created it but supported by a common application (i.e. Shall? Word, Excel etc).
If you obtain something on an obscure application you may need to buy some other application before you can use it. Fit for Purpose: Don’t buy a template for a BIA and Letter High, then change it for something else. If it was made for shall i compare a BIA, that’s all that its going to be able to do, not suddenly be perfect for a Risk Analysis; that’s not what it was developed for. Of Fiber? Formatting: It might be simple but if the i compare template if full of formatting problems and spelling mistkes it might not be a good template for newland archer use. I know you shouldn’t judge a book by it cover but in this case… Sharing our knowledge and practices is shall i compare, what moves us all forward, not just the industry itself. Uk Definition? Just remember to do your homework and look into the templates you come across. You may need too look a quite a few before you find one that suits your needs; heck, they may even give you ideas on what to build yourself rather than using something created by someone else. To paraphrase an old saying, ‘everything free is i compare, good’ so if you find something that helps you, there can’t be too much wrong with it. Newland Archer? #128521; © StoneRoad (Stone Road Inc) 2012.
“Heads in i compare the Sand: What Stops Corporations From Seeing Business Continuity as a Social Responsibility ” and newland archer, “Made Again Volume 1 – Practical Advice for Business Continuity Programs” Risk and Issue Management in BCM / DR Programs. Let’s face it, there’s some level of risk in everything we do. We work to ensure that the risks never come to pass by mitigating them and monitoring situations. Shall? If the situation escalates maybe our risk becomes an actual issue. This is true for belson tv when we build our BCM/DR programs as well. I Compare? As we work at developing our plans and Letter to the Jackson High School Aministration, processes, we run the shall risk of collecting and incorporating the wrong information or missing information altogether, which only impacts our BCM/DR plans and processes. To keep on track, not only are we to ensure we’ve got all the necessary components but we must manage the risks and of fiber cable, issues that crop up during our planning, development and execution phases. Regardless of what BCM/DR methodology you subscribe to – and some don’t subscribe to any one in particular, they just take the i compare best from every methodology and utilize those components – risk and The Effect Essay, issue management is key to shall ensuring you stay on track with your schedule, budget, scope and resources. So how do we manage our risks and issues?
What even distinguishes a risk from an issue? Risks are items that if occur, can cause us problems and issues are those risks that have been realized; ‘Houston, we have a problem.’ Understanding how to manage your risks and belson tv, issues will take you a long way and will – in the end – make your BCM/DR planning road much smoother. Shall? If you don’t, you’ll end up running around always firefighting, be incredibly busy though hardly ever able to get anything accomplished. Let’s look at what risks and issues really are, how to of fiber optic cable manage and track them and some tools you can leverage to ensure your BCM/DR program keeps moving forward and not tripping over shall, everything on its path. Decision Log: Log any decisions that are made on your project. For example, why you won’t be performing a Risk Analysis or why you decided to build an internal Technology Recovery strategy rather than using an external strategy (i.e. 3 rd party vendor). Risks: Risks are items that have the potential to impact your project either by resources, schedule or budget. In project management terms that’s called the triple constraint.
It doesn’t mean that it’s a guarantee they will occur but that there is the potential of them occurring and hampering your work. An example could be the availability of a Single Point of Knowledge (SPoK) that is assigned to optic too many initiatives and doesn’t have sufficient time to spend with you. As a result, the schedule will be impacted. Shall I Compare? By the way, when you document a risk make it an “If / Then” statement: IF ‘x’ occurs THEN ‘Y’ will be impacted. Follow that up with a mitigation strategy on how you’ll try to malice mitigate the i compare risk from ever occurring and give some specific checkpoint dates to transferred malice go with your strategy. It could come down to something simple such as reviewing ‘x’ on a bi-weekly basis to ensure things are on track and the risk isn’t escalating in i compare probability…and severity. By the way, risks are either Expired (they’re no longer risks) or they are Realized (they’ve occurred and become issues). The Effect Of Illegal Immigration US Economy? Critical Risks: In simple terms, they are risks that have a very highly likelihood of shall occurring but haven’t occurred yet.
Usually, when a risk is escalated to a critical risk the mitigation strategies kick in rather quickly and uk definition, everyone rallies together to i compare ensure it doesn’t become an belson tv, issue. Issues: An issue is shall i compare, a risk (critical and non-critical) that has occurred and is impacting your project / BCM program. Each issue must have some level of devised action plan in place so that the newland archer issue is resolved and the roadblock is removed from what you’re trying to accomplish. Managing risks and issues is i compare, vital to ensuring your BCM project success and this goes for all phases of the newland archer project, not just the initial phases. Shall I Compare? We work in transferred definition an industry where we state that ‘anything can happen’ and that is shall i compare, true for projects as well; it can be derailed at anytime by uk definition of rape, anything. Often, we’re aware that something could hinder our progress but we don’t properly monitor it to ensure it doesn’t become an shall, issue for us. With disasters, we monitor the coming storm (i.e. Belson Tv? hurricanes…) but we don’t monitor the coming storm that can be something like a change in technology strategy, which might have an impact on the overall TRP strategy we’re putting together. So monitor the i compare risks and issues or else you might find yourself in trouble.
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English Poetry William Shakespeare Sonnet 18 Shall I compare thee
A Few Essays That Worked (And a Few That Didn#8217;t) Jacques Steinberg, education correspondent for the Times, appears on i compare the Today show to of fiber optic discuss what works in i compare a college essay. By None None on Publish Date December 6, 2010. Transferred Malice? In preparation for a segment on shall NBC#8217;s #8220;Today#8221; show this morning, I reached out to the admissions offices at the University of Virginia and The Effect of Illegal US Economy Occidental College in California for examples of essays that they considered memorable #8212; for good, or ill. Before I share some of these samples, a caveat (one familiar to regular readers of this blog): while it can be instructive to shall i compare read actual college admissions essays, trying to copy a particular approach #8212; or in some cases avoid it #8212; can be perilous. Cable? That#8217;s because how one responds to an essay can be an intensely personal experience.
That said, I would argue that there are some basic lessons to be gleaned from the following examples. Here, for instance, is an excerpt from an essay that was not especially well received at the University of i compare, Virginia, in part because the writer misjudged the age and sensibility of his or her audience: John Lennon’s song ‘Imagine’ was sung by belson tv Fox’s new show, #8216;Glee.#8217; In one particular episode, a deaf glee club performed this song. Shall? I heard it before when John Lennon sang it: unfortunately I did not care much for it. When I watched this episode while the deaf adolescents were singing it, and soon joined by another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230; John Lennon sang it like a professional, but what he did not have was the emotion behind the words. He sang it more staccato than legato. He sang it like it was his job, and nothing more.
These singers from Glee sang with powerful emotions. … Another essay, also musical in focus, got a more appreciative read at U.V.A.: I strode in front of 400 frenzied eighth graders with my arm slung over my Fender Stratocaster guitar — it actually belonged to my mother — and launched into the first few chords of Nirvana’s ‘Lithium.’ My hair dangled so low over my face that I couldn’t see the advantages cable crowd in shall front of me as I shouted ‘yeah, yeah’ in my squeaky teenage voice. I had almost forgotten that less than a year ago I had been a kid whose excitement came from definition waiting for the next History Channel documentary. Shall I Compare? It was during the awkward, hormonal summer between seventh and eighth grade when I first heard Nirvana’s ‘Smells Like Teen Spirit.’ The song shocked my senses — until that point my musical cosmos consisted mainly of my father’s Beatles CDs. I would argue that the admissions committee was able to relate a little more to this essay than the Letter Essay first. And it was certainly more evocative and detailed. It also conveyed more about the writer (and applicant) #8212; a crucial quality in a college admissions essay.
I turn, now, to shall excerpts from newland archer a recent essay that struck a visceral chord within the admissions office at Occidental (where, as an aside, President Obama began his college career): My head throbbed as I closed my eyes and tried to convince myself to give up. ‘Come on, Ashley. Put the pencil down. Just put the pencil down and shall i compare go to bed,’ I told myself sternly. I had been hard at work for hours — brutal, mind-numbing hours. I groaned as I moved over to belson tv my bed, collapsing in a pile of i compare, blankets and closing my eyes. Optic? I lay there for a moment or two, gathering strength, gaining courage. I Compare? My tense shoulders began to unclench as I stretched out and opened my bleary eyes… Suddenly, I bolted upright on definition my bed, eyes wide, blankets flying. Everything had fallen into place. I stumbled madly to my desk, thumped myself down, and snatched up my pencil. ‘I’ve got it! That’s it!’ I whooped, scribbling furiously, as my brother pounded on my wall for silence. I Compare? I had just won another skirmish in my ongoing battle with the crossword puzzle.
What worked here? I#8217;m told the belson tv admissions officers appreciated how the writer conveyed her love of words — and in the process told them much about herself. As a writer, I admired the way she built a sense of shall, mystery at the outset, one that served to draw the reader in. I#8217;ll close with an attempt at metaphor that fell a bit flat, at belson tv, least in shall i compare its reception at Occidental. The applicant writes: I believe in jello; a silly greeting, tasty dessert, or the answer to life as we know it? Factor #1: Have you ever tried to The Effect of Illegal Immigration on the make jello? It takes patience. First you have to shall boil the water; then mix it with powder, stirring for of rape two minutes; then finally adding the cold water and putting it in shall the fridge for forty-five minutes.
Think about the creation of of fiber optic, people… To share your own thoughts on essay strategies #8212; and, perhaps, some excerpts of your own #8212; please use the i compare comment box below. Comments are no longer being accepted. Although the essays chosen as the #8220;good#8221; examples are well-written, I found the other 2 more interesting. Each of those writers seemed to be struggling to express a concept instead of a fairly typical self-absorbed picture. Obviously. the #8220;good#8221; essays are easier to identify with, but they are also rather juvenile.
Our education system tends to reward the neat package, not the messy one. I#8217;d like to of rape think that both sets of essay writers deserve an excellent education. I saw this segment on the Today Show and I am surprised about the first essay. I understand the concept of Glee being a new show and seeming juvenile, but it isn#8217;t. I find the show rather creative for taking older songs, modernizing them, and reintroducing them to a new generation of people. Shall? Not to uk definition mention it adds new life to shall a song already loved by the older generation who watch the show as well. If anything it shows the blatant generation gap between the administrators and the students writing their essay. John Lennon was a great artist but it doesn#8217;t mean I#8217;m obligated to newland archer be a fan, nor is this student. People should respect the difference of opinion. Shall? This student was honest enough to say he/she didn#8217;t like the song and why when performed by John Lennon, but found beauty in the song he/she previously dismissed when performed by newland archer a group of shall, deaf children. I think that shows a strong sense of self in the student which was, unfortunately, overlooked.
Thank you so much for these examples. I will note that the Jello essay uses semicolons improperly. Grammar errors destroy credibility. I was accepted early decision to Virginia, and folks ask me all the belson tv time about my application essay. I wrote about the single moment of shaking an opponent#8217;s hand during a national debate tournament. I was terrified about this opponent, but when I shook his hand, it was cold, limp, and soaking wet. Knowing he was just as nervous as I changed everything for me.
I wanted to share with the application committee my revelation that I don#8217;t need to be intimidated by anyone. My advice for future applicants: Ask yourself what #8220;gift#8221; your essay delivers to the reader. Shall? What#8217;s the pay-off for the audience? If you aren#8217;t writing with the audience in mind, the essay will seem self-indulgent. Thanks so much! This is the part of the application that should be removed. Students that write their own essay are at a distinct disadvantage (unless they are among those students that truly do have talent in this area.) Because the stakes are so high and the competition so great, more and more families are hiring consultants to either write or heavily edit the essays. A consultant could definitely tidy up the Glee and the jello essay and make it relevant. At least we know that the Glee and jello essay writers received no assistance. Other than the most competitive schools is anyone reading the optic cable essays??
It seems that a well written essay if accompanied by low standard test scores gets ignored when in fact the essay is a better example of shall, what the advantages of fiber student can do. These students pour over every word as they see their future hanging in the balance. Does the admissions committee at University of Maryland actually read the answers to shall the short answer questions? Do they read the belson tv essays? I find these examples and the ensuing comments to be an example of just how subjective college admissions officers are when making their decisions. Some admissions essays must be objectively bad (poor grammar, incoherent prose, etc.) and shall I imagine that some must be objectively good, however, it seems to me that the great bulk lie in the middle. In that middle ground then isn’t the merit of one’s essay inextricably tied to the taste’s of the admissions officers reviewing that essay? Would a brilliant essay by Hunter S. Thompson be tossed out because the reader hated drug use and The Effect of Illegal non-conformity? Would an essay by Tom Wolfe be rejected because the reader hated exclamations?
Oh my! Maybe that great 18th century wordsmith Charles Dickens pamphlet would be considered too word? Or Hemingway’s to i compare sparse? What I found so troubling about the admissions cycle when I went through it a decade ago was how arbitrary decisions seemed to be at The Effect Immigration on the US Economy Essay, the top schools. It always seemed to me that once you were in a pool of qualified applicants (good grades, test scores, extra-curricular activities) that admissions came down to chance. I was admitted to the #1 US New School but admissions at a half a dozen lesser ranked schools where I had GPAs and SATs over the 75% mark. Some friends were admitted everywhere they applied, one friend was denied admission everywhere he applied but his in-state safety school despite the fact that he had mid 1500s SATs, a 4.0 GPA and i compare founded our schools Environment Club. I’ve never figured out why that happened, I doubt there’s a simple answer. Malice Definition? The college a person attends doesn’t define them or set them on a fixed course through life. Shall? Nevertheless, it is important and it does matter.
In fact it matters tremendously to those students and parents who struggle through courses and Letter School bills to make their dreams of education a success, and that’s why it is i compare, so terrifying that chance and subjectivity play such a large role in the college admissions process. The purpose of the essay is to reveal something personal about yourself to the admissions committee that isn#8217;t conveyed elsewhere in the application. The first essay didn#8217;t work because it was analysis of the Immigration US Economy merits of two versions of a song. I Compare? I#8217;m surprised that the crossword puzzle essay was offered as an essay that worked #8212; it seems unoriginal, forced, overly dramatic, self-coscious. I read plenty of those as an admissions officer. The debate one worked because it revealed the newland archer author as an observant, empathetic and mature person. And for shall i compare jello #8212; I think that could have been a very funny essay with some good editing, and perhaps may have revealed the author as a quirky kid with a good sense of The Effect Immigration on the, humor. I agree with lp#8217;s analysis. Shall? It should be drummed into every applicant: whatever the subject, the real point is to provide a sense of yourself. Unless you are some kind of master stylist, writing about #8220;other things#8221; will not impress #8212; and even superlative style might very well be lost on an admissions officer who is, after all, looking for uk definition of rape a reason to shall i compare make a decision #8212; any decision #8212; about your application.
I too think the optic crossword puzzle essay seems silly and forced, but I also think the i compare other musical essay was trite and forced. I am afraid that this is what the of rape admissions process has reduced essay writing to. With the shall i compare exception of the second entry, (the Nirvana kid), the rest fell flat. Of Rape? He seemed to convey his thoughts fluidly, and in the manner that he was thinking them. The first entry was of minor interest#8230; but obvioulsy didn#8217;t achieve what it was intended to i compare achieve. The third was simply terrible. Enough said. Newland Archer? The fourth had redeeming value. There are multiple purposes for the essay. One is to guage an applicant#8217;s ability to write.
Fortunately, many employers, like The Times, still value this ability. If your child does not #8220;have a talent#8221; in i compare this area, he/she needs to get to work. More important, if a consultant writes an applicant#8217;s essay, that applicant is cheating. Advantages Of Fiber Optic? Your answer implies that it is acceptable for a student to do so. It is no more acceptable for shall i compare a consultant to write the essay than it is for a student to of rape exaggerate in her list of extracurricular activities. The essay is important and shall i compare valuable and should remain a part of the application process.
It#8217;s not the topic, or it#8217;s generational relationship to of fiber cable the reader, it#8217;s the writing, Sentence structure, organization, rhetorical flourish; the good essays have all three of shall, these. The poor essays just needed some editingor, in some cases, a lot of uk definition, editing. The College Application Essay is one of the best ways to introduce yourself to the Admissions Committee but must be done with care or it will reduce your chances for admission. Certainly there is a lot of i compare, good advice out there, yet it seems hard to believe that by the time a student reaches 17 or 18 years old, they need help with writing a 250-500 word essay! I#8217;ve worked with teens applying to college for several years now, guiding them through the optic cable process, and yes, helping to write their essays.
Believe me, they need it! Please realize that just over 26% of kids are now receiving professional guidance with their essays and college applications. Why? Competition has increased dramatically; a combination of shall, demographics and the simplicity of The Common Application has contributed to the average student now sending out 10 or more applications! Assume that most kids will have similar GPA#8217;s, SAT#8217;s and a noteworthy background in athletics, music or some other passion when applying to a particular school#8230;..what really differentiates him or her? The essay and a personal interview. Some schools do not offer interviews and more and more schools are adding supplemental essays to their applications to The Effect of Illegal Immigration US Economy Essay weed out the students that may not be all that serious about attending their school, even if they are accepted!
Colleges are businesses with expenses and payrolls and endowments to consider. Use every tool you have to shall write a great essay, but grades and transferred malice SAT scores still trump the. essays unless you can guarantee you#8217;ll bring them their first ever College Golf Championship! (Might be a good topic to write about!) Write a very interesting narrative that people will want to i compare read and not put down until they have read the very last word! Write to your audience#8230;#8230;do not write about the time you got caught doing something illegal and brag about your brillant negotiating skills with the police and how you managed to avoid being arrested! Forget humor unless you are a professional comic#8230;#8230;very hard to convey a funny story#8230;#8230;.sometimes you really need to have been there! Finally, have lots of people read it, and of Illegal Immigration if it#8217;s not excellent, just very good, do it again! Its that important! Good Luck Everyone January 1st Deadline is coming fast! Is post number 12 an advertisement? Its seems like an i compare, awful lot of belson tv, private college admissions #8220;counselors#8221; use the comments sections of this blog to justify their services.
For the shall record I agree with the uk definition Curmudgeon, having a consultant write your college application for you is cheating. Its fine to shall have some help, but the newland archer majority of the i compare work and the essay#8217;s #8220;voice#8221; should be the student#8217;s. As a further aside, who is to say that these advisors actually improve the essays. I#8217;m not a professional writer and I don#8217;t work in admissions, but I find #8220;Highly Competitive Essays'#8221; use of exclamation points to be excessive. Belson Tv? Hi The Curmudgeon (#10), Post #12 confirms my point. If one fourth of the kids are receiving paid help, that puts the i compare rest of the applicants at a distinct disadvantage. You would be very surprised to find out just how many people are hiring consultants to write these essays. I absolutely do not mean to infer that it is newland archer, acceptable to cheat.
I only mean to say that it creates an unfair playing field. Until the colleges can figure a way to make it fair, I think the essay should be removed. Students can submit graded English assignments instead. Shall? I remember the kind of person that I was as a teenager and know that if I had to write a college essay, it would have been the jello one. In addition, I liked the Glee/Lennon essay because I wanted to know what she was going to say about the former Beatle. On the contrary, I lost interest in the 2nd music essay and optic skimmed over shall the crossword one (the so-called good essays). As a CUNY applicant in to the Jackson High School Aministration Essay 1979-80, I didn#8217;t need to shall complete an advantages of fiber optic, application essay. Shall I Compare? However, as a student years later (20-30 years later to be exact), my writing matured and I have won academic honors and one scholarship for my writing (I graduated from a state school).
I love writing and couldn#8217;t imagine my life without it (although I write for malice pleasure, not publication). By the way, my SAT scores were also low but I received a Bachelor#8217;s at 43 and a Master#8217;s (4.0 GPA) at 46. I currently have my dream job, introducing books to children. So there, admission officers! Consider reading the shall i compare book(s) ESSAYS THAT WORKED; every admissions officer does. My son wrote his essays for malice his AP English class at a top high school as an shall i compare, assignment. The #8220;prompts#8221; are known about in summer, so making it a part of AP English in fall was easy especially since many students applied to belson tv UC and the private colleges routinely and it boasts a 95% college rate. They went through several reviews and revisions.
And by the end they worked well. He got into UCLA that was his first choice. After that experience, my daughter put together her essays easily with my son#8217;s input. She ran them by shall i compare her college English and History instructors (she went entirely the belson tv community college route in lieu of high school). She got into Berkeley that was her first choice. I believe that students who don#8217;t have diligent and involved English instructors who are willing to make these college essays a part of their curriculum or personal time are at a significant disadvantage. Even though the i compare essay is belson tv, written by the student and in the student#8217;s voice, these professionals pointed out shall i compare flaws that needed correction and of rape reinforced the prompt questions. And in subsequent university courses, the shall care of these instructors is evident in any courses where my kids must write an essay. They had a lasting impression. I would wish other student would get this guidance. I feel that these essays were #8220;first drafts#8221; with ideas but no guidance to refine them.
So as a means to to the Jackson Aministration judge students, it really only shows the schools and students who have caring instructors and i compare follow through on their suggestions and those who may lack such resources. That comment read like an ad! But guess what. Belson Tv? Even ads can have too many exclamation points! If I was an admissions reader, I#8217;d be exhausted by all of those bangs! Please, please, please, spare us the shall i compare ads in the comments! Btw, the crossword essay was stylistically hackneyed! This is an interesting article.
These next few weeks certainly are critical for college applications! On the essay side of things, I#8217;ve found the site theEssayExchange.com, really helpful in assisting my daughter with building her essay. I believe the importance of college application essays are overblown here. Of Fiber Optic Cable? You cannot expect engineering students to shall i compare write as eloquently as liberal arts students. The jello essay may have been written by an engineering student while the Essay crossword puzzle essay by a liberal arts student. I hope colleges are not just looking for good writers. Shall? This country needs great engineers too!
And you are not going to be impressed by many of their college app essays. I agree with seachange. Cheating is unjustifable, but we all know it happens. Besides consultants, friends, siblings and parents have been known to write students#8217; essays. There is little chance to cheat on an SAT/ACT test or an AP/IB exam; these results, along with the Letter Jackson Essay transcript, should be given more weight. Yet every autumn it is the essay that causes the shall most anxiety. My son and I brainstormed for weeks before he came up with a suitable topic to write about. Then it took him another a few weeks to write and Letter Essay edit his essay. I would hate to see his four years of hard work and excellent grades/test results wasted because the admissions committee at his number one school was not intrigued by his essay.
Especially if someone with lower grades and test results is admitted on the basis of an i compare, essay which they did not write. We are told that admissions counselors can tell the malice definition difference between an shall i compare, essay written by a high school student and one by an adult. The Effect On The Essay? I hope they really can. Personally, I feel the essay is important to give a #8220;face#8221; to shall the applicant. The rest of the Letter to the High School Aministration Essay application is shall, a listing of grades, scores and extracurriculars (which can easily be embellished) but the essay is supposed to be the newland archer student#8217;s voice.
I agree with another poster that sending in a graded English assignment is a good alternative. Shall? These examples demonstrate the importance of Immigration on the US Economy, teaching our kids to i compare communicate effectively, not only through the written word, but also through speaking. Malice? If kids can#8217;t communicate their ideas through proper grammar techniques and shall through content, admissions officers have a difficult time deciding if they are an appropriate match for the school. Communication is key in all fields. The kids who wrote the lesser essays may be amazing people, but they failed to communicate it. Glenda. I am often asked how to compose memorable application essays out of “ordinary” teenage lives. Advantages Cable? High school seniors who haven’t won international awards or lived on houseboats or in homeless shelters can feel as if their essays have little to offer. They’re terrified that they will make the same “mistakes” that are highlighted here in “The Choice” (and no wonder … even Ian admissions professional for three decadeshad a tough time differentiating between the “good” and “bad” ones!).
I always reply that, during my 15 years of reading application essays at shall, Smith College, many of the most memorable submissions were on mundane topics. One of newland archer, my all-time favorites was about a laundry mishap at a summer school. I Compare? The author explained how she had accidentally washed her roommate’s expensive white undergarments with her own red sweatshirt. High Essay? Of course, the essay wasn’t really just about laundry … it was more about the boundaries of friendship. Other wonderful essays I recall include a hilarious one on playing in a truly terrible school band and another called “Why I Shop at shall, Wal-Mart.” While there are lots of newland archer, books out there that serve up samples of “successful” essays, there are two that I especially like that offer helpful suggestions on how to craft your own. #8220;On Writing The College Application Essay: Secrets of shall i compare, a former Ivy League Admissions Officer,#8221; by Harry Bauld (which I’ve recommended for Immigration US Economy Essay eons) and a newcomer called, #8220;Concise Advice: Jump-Starting Your College Admissions Essays,#8221; by Robert Cronk, both lead students through the composition process and never lose sight of the fact that 17-year-olds can rarely report triumphs—or traumas—that might help their essays stand out in a crowd. Admission officials really DO want to read about shall i compare, their applicants’ experiences, no matter how “typical,” and they are eager to view them through the writers’ eyes.
Students shouldn’t ever worry that they have nothing cataclysmic to chronicle. After all, what could be more #8220;ordinary#8221; than laundry? I would say that the applicant who wrote the #8220;Imagine#8221; essay didn#8217;t get due to the essay#8217;s flat prose, poor organization, and The Effect of Illegal on the US Economy questionable grammar, not its subject matter. Shall? The song was not sung #8220;by the show,#8221; but by the characters on the show. The sentence #8220;When I watched this episode while the transferred malice deaf adolescents were singing it, and soon joined by another glee club, it surprisingly affected me#8230;#8221; is just an incredible mess.
He didn#8217;t watch #8220;while#8221; they were singing; it should be #8220;were joined by;#8221; and i compare #8220;surprisingly affected me#8221; is a terribly clumsy construction. How about: #8220;As I watched another glee club join the deaf adolescents in of rape singing the shall i compare song during this episode, I was surprised by belson tv how much it affected me.#8221; Not all applicants will be strong writers, but all need to show at least a basic grasp of how to communicate a thought.
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History Department – Essay Writing Guide. This guide is i compare intended to provide you with information about the skills of newland archer essay writing, including how and when to use footnotes or endnotes, presentation requirements and how to reference different kinds of sources (books, articles or web pages, for instance) and with more general advice about shall planning, introducing and developing your essays as coherent and effective arguments. The most important point to remember in working through this guide is that writing good essays and communicating your ideas effectively are skills you can learn, develop and build. One of the most important skills developed in an Arts degree is the advantages cable ability to shall i compare communicate your ideas in writing clearly and effectively. This involves numerous other skills, including the ability to summarise and paraphrase the belson tv work of other writers, the development of arguments and conclusions, and the effective use of evidence to support a case. Essay writing in History is particularly aimed at shall i compare helping you progressively develop your skills in research, analysing different forms of source material, using different kinds of evidence, and writing strong, critical and clear arguments. Of Rape! In most History subjects, you will be asked to i compare produce different kinds of writing. Newland Archer! Short tutorial and document exercises usually address specific skills or tasks (locating sources, analysing a documents point of view, or assessing how particular images or words help us understand historical context, for i compare instance), while examinations assess your knowledge of the uk definition of rape content covered in particular subjects. Essays provide you with an opportunity to explore a particular issue or theme in more depth. I Compare! In general, the functions of an essay are: to introduce an argument, or contention, based upon the question or problem you choose to tackle; to develop and defend that argument or contention by discussing and advantages optic cable, analysing a range of appropriate evidence, and by i compare critically assessing the interpretations of other historians; and to propose conclusions.
The best essays have a clear line of argument, and they present a thesis. In other words, they state a position, defend that position, and arrive at strong, clear conclusions. They have a well-defined introduction which identifies the belson tv central problem or issue and introduces the argument, a body which logically develops the argument point-by-point, and a conclusion which sums up the argument. There are no simple instructions for shall i compare good essay writing. As you progress through your university course, you should be developing skills in research, analysis and communication which will not only allow you to write good essays, but to of rape effectively communicate your ideas in other situations as well. The tutors assessment of your essays provides you with feedback on your progress in these different skills. The desired outcomes of essays in third-year subjects include formulating research projects and acquiring independent research skills; presenting a sustained argument, based mainly on substantial primary sources; placing secondary sources in their cultural, ideological and epistemological context by showing where they fit into the current state of historical knowledge; and i compare, greater awareness of the ongoing debates about the philosophy and practice of history. The desired outcomes of essays in second-year subjects include developing skills in the use of bibliographies and other reference material, critical reading, putting more independent thought and reflection into essays; greater understanding of documentary criticism and interpretation, and the critical analysis of secondary interpretations by other historians. The desired outcomes of essays in first-year subjects include: helping you learn to argue your own position against other points of view; development of the conventions of good historical essay writing, such as rigorous documentation and footnoting; awareness of the variety of representations of the past; familiarity with the different ways historians use evidence; and the ability to recognise, analyse and summarise an historical argument. Do not assume that you should target your arguments for particular lecturers or tutors.
For a start, your predictions may be inaccurate. Moreover, arguing what you think you ought to argue is a lot more complicated and a lot less interesting than arguing what you come to believe as you gather information, review different interpretations, and form your own perspectives on an issue or problem. The Effect Of Illegal Immigration On The Essay! Any teacher can tell you that some of the best essays they read develop arguments they don’t agree with at all, or arguments which challenge their own interpretations. Writing is easier if you imagine an audience: a person you want to convince of something, a person who wants to know about your ideas and perspectives. Your task, however, is not to shall i compare tell your audience what they think, but to advantages of fiber optic tell your audience what you think, and give them reasons and evidence which show why your conclusions are significant, interesting and shall i compare, convincing. 3. Choosing and comprehending the question or topic. Choose a topic or question you find interesting and challenging: it is easier and The Effect US Economy, much more enjoyable to i compare develop and defend a strong argument on to the High something which interests and intrigues you than on something you find boring or simple. Writing is not the outcome or the shall finished product of learning: it is a vital part of newland archer learning. It is a way of sorting out and clarifying your interpretations, trying out your ideas, and discovering new ways of thinking about an issue.
Think about the question or topic in these ways: what is the problem it suggests? what is the shall i compare ‘angle’, the issue, which makes it interesting? what is my first reaction to the question: yes, no, maybe? do I agree or disagree with the contention or interpretation the topic suggests? what ideas and transferred, issues can I explore by answering this question? is shall there a simple answer, or might it be more complex than it looks? what kinds of information is the question asking me to use? what themes can I explore? It is also important to The Effect on the Essay look at the question and ask yourself: do I understand what the question or topic is asking me to do? Have I interpreted the question correctly? If you are not sure, or if you want to check that the approach you are taking does address the question, talk to your tutor. Essay topics are designed to i compare draw on the subject content developed in lectures and tutorials, and on newland archer reading you have completed. Reading the works of other historians, such as those suggested in reading lists, will help you see how others have approached that problem or issue. Historians often disagree on the importance or the meaning of shall events of cable evidence, or use different kinds of evidence to challenge and amend prior interpretations. They will take different approaches to the same question, and suggest different ways of examining an issue, be it gender relations in medieval Europe or the reasons for the collapse of the i compare Soviet Union or the impact of colonial rule in India. Belson Tv! What you will see, however, is shall that all of High Aministration Essay these writers state a position. They address a problem. They answer a real or implied question.
You should trace their strategies for developing arguments and drawing conclusions. As you do your introductory reading, review your lecture notes, and read more widely, think about your point of view, your own position in shall i compare relation to other writers, and your own response to a problem. Transferred! Examine and evaluate the evidence: what conclusions can you draw? Which interpretations do you think best fit the available evidence? Your interpretations and shall i compare, conclusions do not have to be new to be original, challenging, and convincing. You should argue the case which you think emerges most clearly from the The Effect on the US Economy Essay evidence and from your critical review of other historians work. You’ve read the books and articles recommended in the handbook or by your tutor. You’ve come up with some ideas about how you might approach the question, and you’ve got a pretty good idea about how other historians have interpreted the issues and addressed the shall i compare topic. You’ve collected some evidence from a range of different sources and you’ve tried mapping out some preliminary ideas and on the Essay, arguments on paper. You’ve looked again at the major themes of the subject and thought about how you might address them in this essay. Shall I Compare! In order to plan your essay, you now need to come up with an argument, a point of view which will guide your writing towards a conclusion.
Would you agree with the argument that respect for the natural environment is a recent discovery for residents of Mars? Having read a variety of sources, you should be able to state your thesis (your answer) in uk definition of rape a sentence or two. Yes, because prior to the environmental movements of the 1960s, the majority of Martians were more interested in i compare exploiting than respecting the natural environment. No, because Martians have persistently respected their version of the natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form. No, it is difficult to draw a simple, general conclusion on this issue, as the advantages of fiber cable evidence suggests that different groups of Martians have interpreted and viewed the shall environment very differently over time, and Immigration on the US Economy Essay, no clear trend is visible even now. When you begin planning your essay, you should always be able to state your thesis in a fairly straightforward way, based on your initial reading and research for the topic.
This sentence or two states your case. Broadly, your essay is the exposition and defence of that case: it shows the reader how, and why, you have arrived at those conclusions. To write a good essay, you must first decide what your central argument is shall going to be, and then plan your essay to develop that argument. Of course, as you write your first draft, you may find that the transferred malice argument changes and develops in i compare a direction you did not anticipate. Few writers are completely sure of their final conclusions before they begin drafting: the of Illegal on the US Economy Essay task of writing down and defending the argument often reveals unanticipated problems, or challenges and changes your first thoughts, or leads you toward one interpretation more than another. Shall! Often, too, you might need to go back to your sources, read through some of your notes, or do some further reading to clarify and expand an newland archer emerging point. However, the basic thrust and content of your argument or thesis should be clear enough to allow you to plan the shall i compare stages of your argument before you begin drafting.
Perhaps the of Illegal Immigration US Economy single best way of ensuring a successful essay is having a good plan . Shall! The plan should lay out your argument, for instance in point form, and you can also use it to indicate where you will use certain items of evidence and supporting arguments. introduction: state the case for of fiber cable no: Martians have persistently respected their version of the i compare natural environment, because natural environments are always viewed in a romanticised and idealised form explain the thrust of the argument : dispute recent discovery, my essay focuses on previous century to show that respect for environment is always based on historically variable assumptions and uk definition, preconceptions about beauty, usefulness and worth of nature explain idealisation/romanticisation of the natural environment (summarise Smith’s theory of idealisation, discuss paintings, use examples from Connor and Jones) list and give examples of different idealisations of natural environment in the nineteenth century and show different assumptions about beauty and usefulness behind each one (use examples from Green and Brown) show how these different ideals were sometimes contradictory or came into conflict (use example of forestry in Mars Forest) case study: the Martian garden legend (discuss the garden stories); argue that an environment under exploitation also increasingly romanticised (review the different interpretations of Green and i compare, Red, show why I think Green fits better with the uk definition of rape evidence) summarise above points about previous century; what is respected in the recent past: argue that this is another idealisation (evidence: Martian tourist brochures); conclusion: restate the case , and argue that understanding respect for natural environment always means analysing the idealisation of natural environments. In the short essays common in first year, your plan is likely to be less complex, and may only i compare have four or five main points. Jackson High Essay! As you progress into second and i compare, third year, you are expected to develop more sophisticated arguments, which makes good planning even more important. 6a.
Introducing and developing the Immigration argument. In your introduction , you should state your case and, as in the example above, set out the basic structure of your argument . Shall I Compare! You might also briefly summarise two or three of your main points. If you have decided to adopt a particular focus (for instance, using case studies from a particular time or place, or narrowing the topic to concentrate on a particular theme), you should explain this in the introduction as well. Developing the malice definition argument : The example above shows how an argument is then developed towards its conclusion. Basically, each stage of shall i compare your argument should be developed and defended in turn, by of fiber optic cable showing your interpretation of the appropriate evidence, by shall i compare critically reviewing the work of other historians, and by using example, case study and explanation. A good way of thinking about this is to imagine that you are building your argument in blocks . Each paragraph is belson tv a block which builds your argument towards a conclusion. Each block is introduced and shall i compare, described, and then its place in the whole structure is shown.
Block 1: stage of the argument. On Mars in the 1850s, the beauty of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures. If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s Martian Mountains. In her book Environmental Perception on Mars, Joan Brown argues that painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered. However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians usually depicted an idealised nature which was to be protected from the threats posed by Letter Aministration civilisation. Block 2: next stage of the argument.
The most crucial changes occurred after the Martian titanium rushes of the 1870s showed the potentially lucrative returns of mineral exploration and exploitation. I Compare! Certainly, by the 1880s, most representations of the natural environment showed nature being tamed and civilised. Even mining sites appeared in nature paintings, and the work of Joseph Smith is Letter to the School Aministration Essay a good example of how even the most intensive forms of i compare exploitation were represented as beneficial intrusion for uk definition the landscape. Block 3: brief summary, and introducing the shall next stage of the argument. By the 1880s, therefore, the idealised untouched nature of the 1850s had been invaded by humans, and an ideal natural landscape was now represented as one which was productive and bountiful. Letter To The School Aministration! Humans did not threaten nature; they unleashed its potential. It was important for Martians, Smith argued in shall i compare 1883, to feel relaxed and comfortable about the past and future of the Martian environment. Yet representations of an ideal environment as one conquered and populated by High School Aministration Essay humans never completely replaced the older tradition of mourning the degradation of another form of ideal environment, the i compare Martian garden. This alternative version became popular again in the 1890s.
The body of your essay, therefore, uses evidence, examples and explanation to develop your case point by point. Each paragraph has a point to make, and occasional summary sentences guide the reader through the argument. 6b. Using different kinds of evidence. In developing your case, you will need to advantages make decisions about the kinds of sources you will refer to, and the best ways to i compare use them. Sources can generally be defined into two broad types: primary or documentary sources (usually written at the time by an eyewitness, direct participant or close observer) secondary or scholarly sources (usually interpretations and explanations written after the fact by someone analysing the belson tv primary or documentary sources) For example, a book containing the collected speeches of Charles de Gaulle is a primary source; an analysis of them by a political scientist or historian is a secondary source. An article in the Age of 30 June 1900 about the bubonic plague epidemic which affected Sydney during that year is a primary source; an article in the Age on 30 June 1990 discussing the impact of the i compare epidemic on public health policy in Australia is a secondary source. Broadly, the primary or documentary sources are the raw material used by historians , the subject of your argument, while the secondary or scholarly sources provide examples of newland archer how others have analysed and interpreted the problem or issue at shall hand.
The distinction is not hard and fast, and there will always be exceptions. For instance, if you are writing an essay about uk definition of rape historians’ representations of race in Britain, the shall secondary sources of the historians are in transferred fact your primary documentary source. In most essays, you will be expected to critically analyse the interpretations of other historians in this way. In any event, these different types of sources should both be read critically: analysed for i compare their point of advantages optic cable view, for the assumptions, ideas and understandings which inform them, and for the strategies writers use to advance their arguments. Don’t take anything on trust: be a critical reader of all kinds of shall sources and texts , and use your critical analysis of both primary and uk definition, secondary sources in your essay. You also need to shall i compare make decisions about how to use evidence: in the form of quotation, or in uk definition of rape the form of summarising. It is best to use quotation strategically and sparingly : quote phrases or passages which best illustrate the point you are trying to make, or which really help you give your reader the flavour of the shall i compare evidence you are using. If you use a quotation, make sure it fits with the stage of the argument you are advancing. Refer to Immigration US Economy Essay the language, analyse the assumptions or strategies it reveals.
In other words, use quotation when the actual words are the single best way of providing the evidence and developing your case. If the quotation is less than about thirty words, combine it with your text, as in this example where I am quoting the following phrase which is not very long. “You must always use quotation marks to indicate the separation between your words and the words of someone else.” If it is shall longer than this, you should separate it from the text, and indent it: This is an example of a much longer quote. It contains a few sentences, and needs to be distinguished from the belson tv body of the essay. When you are indenting a quote like this, note that you do not have to use quotation marks; as it is already separated, there is no need to i compare indicate that by the use of such symbols. In general, use very little quotation from secondary or scholarly sources. Newland Archer! It is better to say what you mean in your own words, quoting another historian or interpreter only shall i compare where the phrase is particularly wonderful or where you need to show precisely how that writer made their point in order to criticise, defend or develop it. In all other cases, it is best to summarise. Write reflective summaries of what others have written, relating those interpretations to your argument. You might find that the example paragraphs on the previous page gives you a more concrete idea of how a writer can use a mix of summary and direct quotation from different kinds of sources to belson tv develop their argument. In your conclusion, you should restate your case strongly and clearly by summarising your main points.
It is also possible to raise issues and problems in your conclusion, especially broader questions which are beyond the i compare scope of your essay. You might reflect on what your interpretation implies for contemporary debates or discussions, write briefly about the broader implications of your position, or consider what your interpretations tells us about the role and nature of history itself. Use your conclusion to argue for uk definition the significance of your argument and your interpretation. Be careful, though: a poorly developed argument followed by sweeping speculations on the nature of the universe or the human condition is unlikely to shall i compare be either effective or convincing. Again, as you develop your skills in formulating, developing and defending arguments, you will also develop your ability to write more reflectively and to use essays to open up these kinds of complex questions. 7. Writing clearly and Letter, effectively. The best single rule is to always use clear expression: write simply and with clarity and shall, avoid complex sentence constructions . Use definite, specific and concrete language. Don’t use unnecessary words, and make sure you understand the words you are using. Writing problems often occur when people try to use very complex language and syntax. A better idea is to establish a simple and clear style first, and then gradually develop more complex sentence forms and transferred definition, means of expression. As you develop your writing skills, vary your sentence structures and lengths to shall i compare add variety.
Short sentences often add emphasis to a particularly important point. Spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors detract from an argument, whatever its quality: careful editing of your draft is very important. It is also important to use accurate language, which is one good reason for using non-discriminatory language. For instance, the statement that men adapted themselves to advantages of fiber optic these new conditions should lead any critical reader to ask what women were doing at that time. It is a reasonable and accepted convention that all forms of public communication, including journalism, business language and academic writing, should use non-discriminatory language. There are at least five effective ways of shall i compare improving your writing. Always read your own work. what is my main idea, my contention, my argument? am I getting it across to the reader?
Take responsibility for advantages of fiber cable critically assessing your own writing . Look at the comments made on your previous essays, and work out whether this one repeats the i compare strengths and overcomes the weaknesses of your previous work. If you need to, speak to uk definition the person who assessed your work, and ask them for more guidance. Reading other writers. As you read, evaluate the shall i compare styles of different writers. What makes them more or less effective? What is most important to you as a reader, and what makes good writers better to uk definition of rape read?
Practice. Shall! Like any other set of skills, writing improves with practice and with constructive assessment, by yourself and by others. Read your own work out of Illegal on the, loud . You do not need to comprehend the rules of grammar or the intricacies of syntax to know when something sounds clumsy, or when a sentence needs punctuation, or when a long paragraph has completely lost its drift. Reading your draft out shall i compare, loud is also a good way to add variety and oomph to your language. If its boring you to tears, or if you have no idea what it means, it might be time for redrafting. Let other people read what you write . It is particularly good to give your essay to someone who is Letter to the Jackson High Aministration Essay not an expert in the area you are writing about. If it doesn’t make sense to shall them, your argument might need clarification. If they struggle to read it, you might need to edit more carefully. University teachers will not usually be able to read drafts of students work, but there are plenty of other people who can give you feedback. Swap essays with fellow students.
Get the people you live with to read them. Distribute them on buses. 8. Referencing Instructions for Essays. Decisions about when to cite sources can be difficult. Effective referencing is another writing skill your university work aims to optic cable develop. The reader should, in i compare theory, be able to retrace your steps in gathering evidence for your argument. In other words, you provide citations as a kind of belson tv road map that shows readers how you came to these conclusions, shows readers where you derived your information and, if relevant, shows readers where you derived the ideas or interpretations that you are paraphrasing, adopting or challenging.
Therefore, you need to provide citations in the following instances: where you directly quote someone else’s words; where you are directly summarising someone else’s argument and ideas; where you are summarising arguments and ideas derived from a number of i compare sources; to point your readers to the source of information; to translate words or phrase in a foreign language that a reader cannot reasonably be presumed to The Effect Immigration on the US Economy Essay understand. In general, you need to shall i compare provide sources for statements that are problematic or debatable in the context of your argument, or that a reasonably well-informed person would not be expected to advantages of fiber optic know. Shall! Again, the ability to successfully make these judgements is a skill you will develop with practice and experience. If you offer a translation of newland archer a word or phrase in a foreign language, the basis of shall your decision should be whether a reader could reasonably be presumed to know the meaning of the phrase or word already. There is belson tv no need to translate coup d’etat or Sultan or Blitzkrieg, for instance. The use of citation to shall refer readers to the work of other writers is occasionally useful, but for the most part, your citations refer only to books, articles and other material you have used directly. Only cite information that you have actually looked at newland archer yourself, or: always SIGHT what you CITE . It is fine to use a second-hand reference (like a quotation or a summary in shall a book from a source to which you do not have access), but you should indicate that in your citation. An example of how to do this is provided in the next section. You can also use citations to clarify specific points, or add a small amount of additional information or supporting evidence.
You should not use footnotes or endnotes as a sort of The Effect Immigration US Economy second argument, nor to provide paragraph after paragraph of new information. If it is not important enough to put into the body of the essay, then leave it out. 8b. Numbering and placement of footnote and endnote numbers. When providing footnotes or endnotes, number notes consecutively throughout the text.
Put these numbers at the end of shall sentences, if at all possible, and distinguish them from the text either by superscripting (raising above the line) or placing them in brackets. If you use material from two different sources in the same sentence, it is often possible to combine the two citations in transferred malice definition one footnote, using a semi-colon to separate them. Usually, you will refer to information or material at particular places in a larger work so you will need to shall i compare show the page (p.) or pages (pp.) on which the material is located. This text produces the following footnotes: On Mars in the 1850s, the ‘beauty’ of nature was usually associated with wild, untouched landscapes. Painters rarely drew human figures.
If there were humans, nature towered over them, as in Rembrandt’s ‘Martian Mountains’. 1 In her book Environmental Perception on Mars , Joan Brown argues that “painters in the 1850s focused on how nature was being conquered”. 2 However, Ash clearly shows that mid-nineteenth-century Martians respected an idealised nature which was to be kept separate from civilisation. 3. 1 K. Float (ed.), The Magical World of Ken Rembrandt , New York, 1965, p. 68. 2 Joan Brown, Environmental Perception on of Illegal Mars , Sydney, 1995, p. 13. 3 Ann Ash, Joan Brown is shall i compare Wrong , Sydney, 1996, pp. 1-23.
8c. To The High Aministration! Citing different kinds of sources. The following rules should help you through most situations. The absolute rule is to be consistent. I Compare! Inconsistency drives readers crazy, and is not a good tactic when you are attempting to convince those readers of the accuracy of your interpretations and arguments. There are also specific rules for the citation of classical texts like the transferred definition Bible, the Koran and so on.
If you are studying subjects in which these texts are used, your tutor will provide you with the shall information you need to cite correctly. Please note: Some areas of history, especially those published by European and English publishing houses (and now more often Australian publishers), follow the conventions set out in the MHRA (Modern Humanities Research Association’s) Style Guide (available electronically at http://www.mhra.org.uk/Publications/Books/StyleGuide/download.shtml, see section 10.2.2). The guide differs to newland archer the above in shall i compare that it adds the publisher to the publication details, and is formatted differently. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. It is to the Aministration now common practice to use full stops only shall i compare where the abbreviation of the transferred definition word does not contain the last letter of the word. So, editor becomes ed., but editors becomes eds. Shall! Doctor is Dr, but Professor is Prof.. Of Illegal Immigration On The US Economy! Also, where an abbreviated title is used very commonly, you do not need to put in full stops: for instance, ALP, ACTU or UNESCO . Primary or documentary material cited by another author. If you need to shall i compare refer to uk definition a quote or to a piece of evidence which you accessed in shall a secondary or scholarly source rather than the original source, use these examples as a guide:
R. G. Advantages Of Fiber Optic Cable! Menzies, speech in shall i compare the House of newland archer Representatives, 23 March 1943, cited in Judith Brett, Robert Menzies Forgotten People, Melbourne 1992, p. 47. Letter from Lewis Mumford to Frederic Osborn, 2 April 1937, cited in shall i compare Alison Ravetz, Remaking the Urban Environment, London 1980, pp. 148-9. The general rule is uk definition that if the original source is shall available, you should go to and use that original source, rather than borrowing your evidence from another writer. Author of document (first name, last name), name of document (use italic or underline), in editor (ed.) or editors (eds), title of collection (use italics or underline), place and date of publication, page or pages.
John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Immigration On The US Economy Essay! Dickinson, in J.B. Shall I Compare! Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader , Harmondsworth, 1977, pp. 251-2. (Note: ‘trans.’ is the abbreviation for ‘translated by’.) If your area of history follows the MHRA Style Guide , this item in belson tv your bibliography would follow the same convention outlined earlier, namely: John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in The Portable Medieval Reader , ed. by J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977), pp.
251- 2. If the document was not published but has a title (for instance, an unpublished paper or a speech or an article), use single inverted commas around the name of the shall document. If it was not published and newland archer, has no title (a letter, for instance), there is no need for any marking. For instance: Friederich Engels, ‘The evils of capitalism’, in K. Kharkov (ed.), The Collected Speeches of Engels , Moscow, 1954, pp. 23-8.
Yves of Narbonne, letter to Gerald of Mallemort, c. 1241, in shall i compare Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Uk Definition! Evans (eds), Heresies of the High Middle Ages , New York, 1991, pp. 185-7. If you are going to be using documents in archives, or other unpublished material, consult your tutor for assistance with citation rules. If you are referring to normal newspaper writing (news of events, editorials, and so on), you need only shall i compare provide the name of the newspaper and the date: The Age , 25 April 1996. If you wish to refer to a specific article, usually by an invited contributor, or to a significant special feature (say, a four-page special report or a report in a weekly magazine), use the same format as for definition articles in shall journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title (use either italics or underline), place and of fiber cable, date of publication, page (p.) or pages (pp.) of the i compare information to belson tv which you are referring. So: Tim Bonyhady, The Colonial Earth , Melbourne, 2000, p. 13. These publication details are always on one of the first pages of the book (and usually on the page after the main title page): these details list the publisher and i compare, the place of publication, and give other information, most of which you don’t need to provide (though see the note below). It is important to check if this is the first edition of the book, as subsequent editions may contain major revisions, which your reader will need to know in order to transferred malice definition follow your research trail.
If the book is a second or subsequent edition, put that information behind the title. Some further examples: Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the shall i compare Male: Men’s Bodies , Britain and the Great War, London, 1996, pp. 98-104. John Kasson, Houdini, Tarzan, and the perfect man: the white male body and the challenge of modernity in America , New York, 2001, p. 231. Thompson, Paul, The Voice of the Past: Oral History , 2nd ed., Oxford, 1988, pp.
53-76. Again, for those following the MHRA style of advantages cable referencing (see above), the publisher is i compare included in the publication details. For example: Peter Burke, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998), pp. 54-56. Place of publication is always a city or town, not a state, province, region, nation or continent. Author (first name, last name), title of chapter (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), in editor (ed.) (or editors (eds)), title of book (use either italics or underline), place and date of publication, pages to belson tv which you are referring. Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in shall i compare W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of of fiber cable Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. E. Zinkhan, ‘Louisa Albury Lawson: feminist and patriot’, in i compare D. Adelaide (ed.), A Bright and of Illegal US Economy Essay, Fiery Troop , Melbourne, 1988, 27-8.
Estelle Freedman, ‘”Uncontrolled Desires”: The Response to the Sexual Psychopath, 1920-1960’, in Kathy Peiss Christina Simmons (eds), Passion and i compare, Power: Sexuality in History , Philadelphia, 1989, pp. 187-99. Please note: for those following the of rape MHRA Style Guide (see above), and shall, are including the name of the publisher, a footnote reference would be styled like this example: Eve Salisbury, ‘ “Spare the Rod and The Effect Immigration US Economy Essay, Spoil the Child”: Proverbial Speech Acts, Boy Bishop Sermons, and shall, Pedagogical Violence’, in Speculum Sermonis , ed. by uk definition of rape Georgiana Donavin, Cary J. Nederman, and shall, Richard Utz (Turnhout: Brepols, 2004), pp. 141-55 (p. 153). (Here ‘pp. 141-55’ indicate the page span of Salisbury’s contribution to the volume, and the bracketed ‘(p.
153)’ indicates the specific page reference.) Articles in journals or magazines. Author (first name, last name), title of article (use single inverted commas around title, lower case), title of journal or magazine (use either italics or underline), volume or number, year of publication, pages covered by the article, specific page(s) to which you are referring. Phil Scraton, ‘Policing with Contempt: The Degrading of Truth and Denial of Justice in malice the Aftermath of the Hillsborough Disaster”, Journal of Law and shall i compare, Society , vol. 26, 1999, pp. 273-97, p. Of Fiber Cable! 275. Emily K. Abel, ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History , vol.
10, 1998, pp. 32-52, pp. 34-5. You will find information about volume number on shall i compare the title page of US Economy Essay each journal. If there is both a volume and an issue number, just the volume number will usually do (for instance, American Historical Review , 102 (1995), or Australian Historical Studies , 26 (1994-5)). Most journals continue numbering pages throughout one volume, even if that volume has several separate issues or numbers. So a reference would read: Katherine Lowe, ‘Elections of i compare Abbesses and Notions of Identity in uk definition of rape Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Italy, with Special Reference to i compare Venice’, Renaissance Quarterly , 54 (2001), 389-429 (p. 390). Director (last name, first name), dir, Name of the film (use either italics or underline), year of transferred malice release.
Hicks, Scott, dir, Shine , 1996. Hitchcock, Alfred, dir, The Birds , 1963. Name of the program (in single inverted commas) and, if this program is part of a series, the i compare specific title of the program and the name of the series (use either italics or underline), location of the program, date of the program. Aboriginal Land Rights: A Special Report, ABC Radio National, 11 December 2002. Interview with John Howard, 3LO, 8 February 2003.
‘Golly Gee, I’m Interviewing a Famous Person’, Sixty Minutes , Nine Network, 13 February 2001. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House , ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Author of the document (if known), name of the document (if relevant), date of the document (if known), at full WWW address, date on belson tv which you accessed the page. ‘Social Conditions in Seventeenth-Century France’, at shall http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/17france-soc.html, accessed 31 March 2003. ‘Suffragists Picketing the White House, January 1917’ (photograph), at http://teachpol.tcnj.edu/amer_pol_hist/thumbnail291.html, access 17 April 2003. Sojourner Truth, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. Using Resources From the Internet and WWW. While there are some very useful sites for historians, including homepages describing research, or containing documents, photographs and interpretive materials, or providing primary documents like speeches, transcripts or debates, you need to be as critical and careful in your use of WWW resources as in your use of any other kind of evidence . A good deal of the uk definition of rape material on the web is i compare not ‘screened’ in any way: it is not edited, reviewed by transferred malice others, or subject to any control. This is its greatest strength and its greatest weakness as a medium, and makes the task of critically assessing and shall i compare, using sources even more important.
For the advantages of fiber optic cable citation, you need to give your reader enough information so that they can easily locate your source: in this case, the shall full web site information. You also need to tell your reader when you accessed the page: because web pages are updated, the belson tv information may have changed location or been removed. In fact, it is i compare a good idea to print out malice, a copy of the page(s) you are using: you can use them more easily, and you have a copy of the information should it subsequently disappear from the web. Citing something for shall the second time: use of abbreviations and short titles. Once you have given full information in the first footnote, you should use abbreviations and short titles to refer to the same source again. High Aministration! What will usually suffice is the authors last name and a short title (i.e. the first few significant words of the shall i compare title, as below). Ibidem (always abbreviate as Ibid.) indicates in the place just described, but it must follow directly from the previous citation.
1 Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and the Great War , London, 1996, pp. 98-104. 3 Roger Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, in W. F. Bynum Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the belson tv History of Medicine , London, 1993, p. 156. 4 Bourke, Dismembering the Male , pp. 126-9. 5 Cooter, ‘War and Modern Medicine’, p. 158.
In endnote 6, the information is contained on i compare the same page as endnote 5, and therefore you do not need to repeat the page number. Again, keep in mind the principle of High giving the reader the amount of information they would need to find the material for i compare themselves. Definition! There may be particular conventions which you should observe for particular units: you will be provided with these where necessary. In general, historians do not use the Harvard referencing system. Archaeology students, whose discipline does employ this system when referencing, should follow the norms of history referencing when writing history essays. I Compare! Similarly, history students should use the Harvard referencing system when writing archaeology essays. Students need to be aware that in archaeology/ancient history a variety of styles is Letter to the Jackson School used: Harvard, Oxford and shall, MHRA. Students in the Centre for Archaeology and Ancient History must be able to use all of to the Jackson High Aministration them correctly; they also use unpublished materials of the types outlined for history and reference them in footnotes. In the end, it is a matter of shall communicating your understanding of your evidence in the style appropriate for your discipline and task. Unit coordinators will advise you if you are unsure.
9. Forming a bibliography and an annotated bibliography. Your essay should include a bibliography of all sources. If you have used a wide variety of different types of malice definition sources, it is helpful to put them into shall i compare, different sections: for instance, the documents or texts (primary sources) you have used might be separated from the historical scholarship (secondary sources). In general, follow the same conventions described above with the exception that authors’ surnames precede their forenames/initials to allow for easier alphabetisation (as in the example below). List your sources alphabetically within each section. Transferred Malice! However, you do not need to include the shall i compare page numbers for specific information or citations in your bibliography. Of Rape! Films, television and radio shows and documents from web sites should be included: if there is no author, put them at the front of the list and order them alphabetically by title.
Newspapers should be listed, but you do not need to provide the dates. Note: those following the MHRA conventions will include the publisher’s name, along with slightly different formatting, as given in examples above (e.g. Burke, Peter, The European Renaissance: Centres and Peripheries (Oxford: Blackwell, 1998)). Contemporary documents and texts. John of Salisbury, Policraticus , trans. J. Dickinson, in J.B. Ross and M.M. McLaughlin (eds), The Portable Medieval Reader, Harmondsworth, 1977. Truth, Sojourner, Narrative of Sojourner Truth, a Northern Slave, Emancipated from Bodily Servitude by the State of shall New York, in 1828 (1850), at http://docsouth.unc.edu/neh/truth50/truth50.html, accessed 16 April 2003. The Birds, dir.
Alfred Hitchcock, 1963. ‘The Reckoning’, The Frontier House, ABC Television, 27 April 2003. Abel, Emily K., ‘Valuing Care: Turn-of-the-Century Conflicts between Charity Workers and Women Clients’, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, 1998, pp. 32-52. Kasson, John, Houdini, Tarzan, and the Perfect Man: The White Male Body and the Challenge of Modernity in America, New York, 2001. All sources which you have used in order to assist your interpretation of your evidence (the historical scholarship, or secondary sources), should be annotated, when an annotated bibliography is required in the unit. Newland Archer! Annotation tells the shall reader what role a particular source played in transferred malice definition developing your argument. A statement of two or three sentences is usually ample. For instance:
Joanna Bourke, Dismembering the Male: Men’s Bodies, Britain and shall i compare, the Great War, London, 1996. Bourke’s argument about the changing meaning of ‘disability’ provided a very important perspective on the links between wartime and postwar debates over masculine vulnerability. Her interpretation of what ‘shell-shock’ taught doctors about manhood was particularly valuable for my argument, as was her discussion of dress reform movements during the 1920s. One of the most important skills in malice definition effective communication is formatting and presenting your work in ways which help rather than hinder your reader. The impression of clarity, fluency and organisation created by good formatting is shall i compare very important; conversely, a good essay written without regard for the eye as well as the malice definition mind is an ineffective piece of communication. Some general guidelines: observe the word length, or at i compare least a margin of error of about 10 per newland archer, cent: one of the skills of shall writing is to write to a target, and to tailor your argument to suit the demands of The Effect of Illegal on the US Economy Essay that target. A short 1500 word essay on wartime politics in Nazi Germany or criminality in nineteenth-century Australia is i compare meant to be a short essay, not a major thesis. The Effect Immigration On The! Adapt your case, and the ground you will cover, so that you can write something effective and convincing within the word length; include a word count with your essay. type, print or handwrite the essay on one side of the paper only, using standard A4 paper, and number each page. For essays of 1500 words or more, it is reasonable for i compare your tutor to expect a typed or printed copy, though handwriting is fine for shorter exercises; double or one-and-a-half spacing is required, because it leaves more room for comments and corrections; leave a 4cm margin on the left hand side, and a 1.5cm margin on the right, again for comments and ease of reading.
Ensure that you use at least a 12-point font. attach a cover sheet (standard cover sheets are available in the pigeonholes under the counter of the newland archer School of Historical Studies’ General Office, W604). You must tick all the boxes on the reverse side of the cover sheet before signing off under the plagiarism and collusion statement on the front of the sheet. ensure that your essay stays together: staples, paper clips, a plastic folder, whatever (we do not grade essays by weight, so go easy on the staples).