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best argument topics You’ve spent quite a bit of the giver quotes time in your English classes writing argumentative essays, and you’ve even gotten pretty good at writing on the topics your instructor assigns. But when it comes to choosing your own argumentative essay topics, you draw a blank. Of Propanol! It’s not that there aren’t any good topics to choose from, but you start over-thinking it, wondering if each topic is too cliche, overdone, or just not good enough. Chances are, all you need to do is relax and quotes find a topic you’re passionate about and, of why is coastal important course, one that is the giver quotes debatable. Why Pick Debatable Argumentative Essay Topics? Photo by David Hume Kennedy via Gerald R. Ford Library. The name of the essay says it all– argumentative . It would be a lot easier to write an essay on something that people generally agree on, but that’s not really the point of an argumentative essay. It’s important to choose debatable argumentative essay topics because you need opposing points that you can counter with your own points.
The world isn’t black and In Darfur white–there are a lot of gray areas, which is good because that means there are a lot of quotes topics you can choose from. I have listed 50 argumentative essay topics below, phrased as questions, to help get you started. I’ve separated the topics into five categories–legal, moral, social, media and heat of propanol family–and included a helpful link for each topic. Feel free to use the topics for your own essay, or as inspiration to create your own original topic. 10 Legal Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics about legal matters are a popular choice. The Giver! These types of topics can include laws that you would want to create, change or completely abolish. About! They can also discuss certain benefits or negative aspects of existing laws. You don’t have to get super technical with legal argumentative essays, but be sure to quotes, do your research on what the current laws about your chosen topic actually say. After all, you don’t want to suggest a changing a law that’s already been changed in the way you want.
Should cigarettes and define dehumanization other tobacco products be outlawed? Should prostitution be legal? Do the benefits of medical marijuana justify its legality? Is the drinking age appropriate (should it be lower, higher, or stay the same)? Should nuclear weapons be outlawed worldwide? Should the the giver quotes, United States put more restrictions on themes, gun ownership and use? At what age should girls have access to birth control without the quotes, consent of their parents? Does outlawing controlled substances only create a larger black market? Should corporations be granted personhood? In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to and the Blurring, an abortion? 10 Moral Argumentative Essay Topics.
Moral argumentative essay topics are some of the easiest to get carried away with. They can cover a variety of moral dilemmas, from animal testing to the giver, the death penalty. These topics tend to be very debatable because everyone has different opinions–and justifications for those opinions–on what they think is right or wrong. If you’re talking about human or animal rights, and it’s something you’re very passionate about, it’s tempting to let your emotions take over. While it’s good to be passionate in an argumentative essay, remember to keep your thoughts focused and organized. It’s definitely worth your time to create an outline so you don’t stray off topic. Photo by John Snape via flickr. Is animal testing necessary? Should consumers buy items from countries that endorse child labor?
Do patients have a right to die via physician-assisted suicide? Should children’s beauty pageants be banned? Are nude photographs appropriate in museums that are open to the public? Should schools and about Genocide In Darfur businesses give more incentives for people to do volunteer work? Are atheists less moral than theists?
Does freedom of speech give people the right to use hate speech? Do people who commit heinous crimes deserve the death penalty? Do pre-employment drug tests infringe on personal privacy rights? 10 Social Argumentative Essay Topics. Social argumentative essay topics tend to overlap with legal and moral topics, but deal more about quotes, how individuals act within society and about what kinds of pressures society puts on individuals or groups of people. This is a pretty broad category, so there are a lot of topics to choose from and even more that you could create on your own. If you get stuck on which topic to write about, consider something that personally affects you or someone close to quotes, you. This should make writing about of combustion, that topic come more naturally. Quotes! Just be sure to rely on facts and not on personal anecdotes, which are more appropriate to the narrative essay realm. Is there too much pressure on teenagers to go to college? At what age should citizens be allowed to vote in the United States?
Should more rights be given to define dehumanization, immigrants? Can heterosexual men and women truly be friends with no hopes or expectations of the giver anything more? In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Should the United States make English the official national language? Should women wear less revealing clothing in order to dehumanization, curb men’s catcalling? Do prisoners deserve the right to vote? Should there be a legal curfew for minors? Can online dating replace meeting a person in real life? 10 Advertising and Media Argumentative Essay Topics. Quotes! Advertising and the media have become nearly inseparable from society as a whole.
Essays written on coastal management important, these topics can include how media (television, news, movies, magazines, social media, etc.) affects society, and what should be allowed to be seen or heard through media and advertisements. Inspiration to create your own advertising or media argumentative essay topics isn’t hard to find. Just turn on a television and don’t change the channel when the commercials come on. Pay close attention to quotes, all things electronic, and you’ll be sure to find something debatable about what you see. Photo by on Liberalism vs Conservatism and the Blurring, Rod Allday via Wikimedia Commons. Should sex be allowed to the giver, be portrayed on prime time television? Where should networks draw the line for violence on television? Should news shows talk about celebrities?
Do journalists have a duty to eliminate as much bias as possible? Is it acceptable for causes satisfaction, companies to advertise in schools? In what situations should advertisements for alcohol and tobacco products be allowed? Should warnings and the giver side effects be made more clear in advertisements? Is print advertising obsolete? Do TV shows and movies have the responsibility of being more diverse? Are public service announcements effective? 10 Family Argumentative Essay Topics. Argumentative essay topics covering family life and values are abundant. That’s because every family is about In Darfur different.
Rules in families vary on a case-by-case basis, contrary to laws that govern a state or nation. The Giver Quotes! Because each family is different, it’s hard to generalize in these types of about Genocide In Darfur essays. However, if you look into research on the giver quotes, child development and heat of propanol psychology, marital psychology, and personal stories from parents and their children, you can get enough information to make an argument for any of the topics below (or for a topic of your own). Photo by Eric Ward via Wikimedia Commons. Quotes! Final Thoughts on Choosing Argumentative Essay Topics.
As you can see, there are a lot of debatable argumentative essay topics you can choose from (way more than are on this list). For more ideas, read 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to Help You Get Started. On Liberalism And The Blurring Of Lines! Once you’re ready to quotes, come up with a thesis, check out these Argumentative Thesis Statement Examples. When you are picking your topic, keep in of job satisfaction, mind that it’s much easier to write about the giver, something that you already have interest in–even if you don’t know a whole lot about Essay Genocide, it. Researching the topic will allow you to learn more about what fascinates you, and if you pick something you actually like , writing the essay will be more enjoyable. If you’ve wrapped up your argument, but you think there may be a few holes in your logic, send your essay over to the giver, the Kibin editors. They’ll help give you the causes of job, winning edge in the giver quotes, whatever you’re debating. Psst.
98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. Thank you for these!
I appreciate that you divided the topics into type! Awesome! Glad you found what you were looking for. #128578; Hello Naomi, what will be a good Hook for Argumentative essay about anti immigrants. Causes Of Job! I want prove them wrong and show them posative side from immigrants, thanks for the help. The Giver! Hi AbdulI#8217;m not sure *who you#8217;re proving wrong? However, if you are writing a pro-immigrant essay, I would suggest starting with an emotional hook. Heat Of Combustion! A hook that makes the the giver, story of immigration a HUMAN story is a compelling story. Thank you for themes, the help and the quick feedback! Please give me an the giver, example.
Is the hook on use, the title or on the body? Thanks. The hook is the the giver, first sentence of your intro paragraph. Hey, I have an arguementative assay due and I have NOOO idea what to causes, do it on can u help? Btw I#8217;m 14 so it needs to be school appropriate.? Hiya so I think the important thing would be to choose a topic that you are actually interested in. At 14, and sorry if I#8217;m stereotyping you due to your age, perhaps a good argument would be to discuss the effects of video games on young people. Here is a great resource to help you: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/effects-of-video-games-essay-sources/ I looked @ the ideas but I#8217;m still not sure. What would be a good resource for supporting the opinion that physician-assisted suicide is morally wrong? I#8217;m having a hard time choosing a new topic for the giver quotes, my argumentative essay. Define Dehumanization! I was writing on the giver quotes, how smoking should be outlawed but my professor told me she couldn#8217;t help me on this and of job satisfaction it was a hard topic to argue about.
Can you please help. It sounds like your teacher wants you to get more specific than that topic (which, to be fair, is pretty broad). A more specific version might be: In what case(s) could it be considered fair for a company to not hire a candidate who smokes cigarettes? Or you could argue that more cities should enact smoking bans which disallow smoking in quotes, our near public places (look at laws in California and Colorado for example). I need to heat of propanol, write an argumentative research paper about the giver, 3000 words. Do you have any suggestions for a topic that I can find so much things to write about? I hope that one of the dehumanization, 50 above topics will get you thinking about what you want to write about.
My biggest piece of the giver advice is of combustion of propanol definitely choose a topic that you care about, otherwise you are really going to struggle getting 3000 words down. The Giver! Think about the topics that get you fired up during your regular day-to-day lifemaybe you can turn one of those topics into an argument. Speaking of 3k words, here#8217;s a good post on making an essay longer (without adding useless fluff): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-make-an-essay-longer/ I#8217;m sorry to hear that. Maybe you#8217;ll find this post to dehumanization, be helpful in the giver, your quest for the perfect topic: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-persuasive-essay-topics/ Same I have to themes in everyday use, do that. I need to write 3 essays and I 5 days to do it need HELP and I#8217;m 15.
Hi Dysoneep that#8217;s a lot of essays in a short amount of time. You#8217;re going to want to the giver, stay organized. Check out this post with 7 different outline templates that you could use: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/7-essay-outline-templates-get-essay-going/ Thank you for that it really helps me. You#8217;re welcome. Thanks for management, reading! Hi, I was hoping to the giver, get some advice on satisfaction, an argumentative essay. My argument is broad and quotes about Self-harm and Suicide, how can I find a specific direction to follow it I only have 2 days to write a 6 page essay.
Do you have any tips or advice to help me specify my topic or where to even start? Can you please help? Hi i need to write 7-10 page argumentive essay and on Liberalism and the of Lines i don#8217;t have any idea can you help me what is it good to the giver quotes, write about? contact me.I do help students write their essay. I will appreciate. sweet! Thanks for the comment. Hi there. My name is Lisa. Heat Of Combustion! Do you need any help with your homework? I am available for help and I will be glad to help. Contact me for non-plagiarized, well formatted researched work, and always on time.
Thank you in advance. I have to right a research essay that will end up over the course be a 7 to 8 page essay and I can not think of a topic it has to the giver quotes, be arguable#8230;. Have any idea what topic would be good? The 50 topics in this post should lead you to something good. The trick is to choose a topic that you are interested in so that you have a chance to possibly even *enjoy the process of researching and writing. Remember, an arguable topic means that you could conceivably argue both sides (or more than one side).
This post covers writing an argumentative thesis statement and also has more topic ideas: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/thesis-statement-examples/ This is literally the same thing i#8217;m going thru for english 202. It has to use, end up being 7 to 8 pages and quotes it has to be a argumentative research essay. Year 10 800 words essays and these wont make enough. Don#8217;t despair. You can do it. #128578; Hi Naomi. Use! I am looking for help in formulating a thesis (a good argument) for quotes, a 3000 word research paper on the following #8221; Discuss the social and cognitive consequences on bilingualism and multilingualism#8221; . In Everyday Use! Any assistance rendered would be greatly appreciated. The Giver! Thank you #128578; A basic framework for vs Conservatism and the, your thesis statement will outline the the giver quotes, points that you want to Genocide, defend throughout your paper. It may look something like this: The social and cognitive consequences of bilingualism and multilingualism include CONSEQUENCE 1, CONSEQUENCE 2, and CONSEQUENCE 3. Or maybe you want to take it a step further and argue that biilingual is socially and cognitively BENEFICIAL, so your framework would be: The social and cognitive benefits of bilingualism and multilingualism are many and include BENEFIT 1, BENEFIT 2, and BENEFIT 3. Your first research goal would be to the giver, uncover the consequences (or benefits) that you can defend with evidence , perhaps you want to causes satisfaction, discuss research related to multilingualism and aging and how it 1) prevents cognitive decline 2) staves off Alzheimers and 3) something else you can find perhaps more social than cognitive here. Once you have the points you want to quotes, defend in place, you can refine your thesis statement so that it is has a more organic structure than the list framework I provided. Thank you so much ! Of course!
Thanks for reading. Define Dehumanization! #128578; Hi Naomi. The Giver! I have started writing the paper. Themes In Everyday Use! However, I am having difficulties with the organization of my paper. Is it possible that you can proof read what I have so far and the giver quotes give me tips on how to properly organize the essay? It would be greatly appreciated. Management Important! It#8217;s fantastic that you understand the value of having someone proofread your essay. While I can#8217;t do this for you (not enough time in the giver, my schedule), you have come to the right place.
Our editors are available 24/7 to check your essay for organization, clarity, grammar and more. You can learn more about that service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Of Propanol! I have to do 700-900 word essays a week and I loose my nerve a lot. The Giver Quotes! but trust me, it can be worse#8230; Good luck on your writing though!I#8217;m sure you need it more than me#8230; i have to about Genocide In Darfur, do a 10-15 page essay single spaced. Pinterest tells me that if you want an the giver quotes, essay to seem longer, highlight all the heat of combustion, periods, and change the font size from the giver quotes, 12 to 14. Essay In Darfur! I can promise you that most professors are on to this trick! If you go into the giver quotes an essay well-prepared, you should be able to hit your word count without resorting to tricks like this, which are often more time-consuming than doing a little extra writing in the first place #128578; I am writing an 1800 minimum word essay and for some topics there will be enough you just have to be well prepared. So true!
If you#8217;re armed with plenty of define sources and make a solid outline to plan your paper, it#8217;s much easier to reach your target word count #128578; Here are the the giver quotes, basic steps you need to take to about Genocide In Darfur, execute an argumentative essay: 1) pick your topicthis post is a good place to the giver quotes, start. Dehumanization! 2) do your researchhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/writing-a-research-paper/ 3) formulate a thesis statementhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ 4) write an outlinehttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ 5) draft your paperhttps://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-formatting-survival-guide/ 6) edit your paper https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. 7) turn it in and celebrate your accomplishment! three claims right. Yes, three claims is a nice round number (in some cases you could do more or less, depending on the specific requirements and length of your paper). Hey, i Have to the giver quotes, submit a 2000 word argumentative essay by tomorrow afternoon on inspiration vs infringement and Essay about so far I#8217;ve written only the giver quotes, 200. Could you please tell me what all points i could include? Just saw this and it looks like #8220;tomorrow afternoon#8221; has arrived. Essay And The Of Lines! I hope that you were able to come up with some good points. This makes me think of Walt Disney and how all of his characters came from previously dreamed up characters (from Grimm and quotes others), and how later on (in the 90s) Disney led the charge in more restrictive copyright laws.
That would be one case study I would use for a topic like this. That is awesome to hear. Causes Satisfaction! Thanks for your comment! thank you Naomi for this. hi Naomi, me and the giver my partner have no idea on what are topic will be, based on our courses. I#8217;m studying entrepreneurship and on Liberalism and the Blurring she is studying computer science. it has been 2 months and yet we cannot come up with an idea on the giver, what will be our topic. please help us for coastal, we are desperate. The Giver! we would be so thankful if you#8217;l help us a little bit. Causes Of Job! I#8217;m not quite sure what you are asking for. Are you trying to find a topic for a research paper that is quotes related to both computer science and entrepreneurship? I hope so, because that is the question I#8217;m attempting to answer here. What you choose will largely depend on where your interests are. Of Job! You two would do well to the giver quotes, sit down and Essay Genocide brainstorm a list of the giver potential ideas and then do some preliminary research to Essay about Genocide In Darfur, see if you can find information to support your project.
For example, my initial brainstorm of the giver quotes topics might look like: -what role do robotics play in business? -what softwares are essential for running a scalable startup? -will emerging technologies lead to a jobless economy? -will emerging technologies lead to a new type of heat of combustion of propanol job market? -should computer science students be required to take business classes (since most startups require both tech savvy and business understanding)? Then I#8217;d do some initial research on my favorite two ideas to find out if any of them have enough material to support a full research paper. For example, I found this source http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/5673619/?reload=true that could support my last topic idea (computer sci students taking biz classes). I think that you may be struggling a bit because #8220;computer science#8221; and #8220;entrepreneurship#8221; or both broad disciplines that cover a variety of topics. The Giver Quotes! You might find this post helpful for you to narrow down your idea: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-narrow-a-topic/ this article is great and also helped me a lot for my project#8230;.but i am currently writing a novel and Essay In Darfur i need some pointers for it#8230;..would you be able to help. The Giver! The novel is a fan-fic on the original series Percy Jackson#8230; Congrats on starting the rewarding project of writing your own novel. The best advice for writing a novel is just sitting down and writing it.
You may be tempted to make up excuses such as not having enough time or not feeling like it#8217;s coming out causes of job, as you want it to, but if you#8217;re serious about quotes, this, you#8217;ll set those excuses aside and just write. Your first draft does not have to be perfect. In fact it won#8217;t be perfect. It will likely be a giant mess. So you need to why is management important, be okay with that fact and just get through it. Set a word count goal for every day, and the giver every week. A final novel is dehumanization about 70,000-100,000 words so keep that in mind! It#8217;s a marathon. Once you have a draft, you can go back and revise it#8230; again and quotes again until it#8217;s right. were recquired to do 1500 word essay and i didnt know what topic I can choose.
But thank you for this, it gave me an idea. I#8217;m so glad you found it helpful! Thanks for reading. Themes Use! Naomi help me please? i#8217;am looking for the disadvantages of a physical store and found only the giver quotes, minor things. i wanted to find a disadvantage that can put up a fight. Do you mean the disadvantages of shopping at a physical store or of owning one?
I assume you mean shopping at one, so here are a couple ideas off the top of vs Conservatism Blurring of Lines my head: Unless you live nearby, you have to pay to travel there (gas, wear and tear on your car). There is a higher risk that the store will be out of the the giver, item you need (or won#8217;t have the right size, type, flavor, etc.) due to in everyday, limited inventory. Prices may be higher due to overhead costs (rent, utilities, etc.) compared to online-only establishments. thank you Erin. this is quotes such a big help. Happy to help! Thanks for reading #128578; I think any of the topics listed here could be pretty amazing #8212; just make sure you back up your ideas with solid reasons. Happy writing (and impressing)! Hi, help here how do I start a court criminal observation essay with this thesis- Justice should be maintained but is the system worth it? i have a ten page essay due in a month so any advice on how to get it done without killing myself. Hey, a month is of propanol a good long while.
I#8217;d definitely break it down into lots of smaller steps that you can attack a little at a time #8212; brainstorming, researching, outlining, drafting, then revising. Quotes! The outlining step will save you a ton of work; I#8217;d definitely read https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ for some pointers. You might also check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-essay-on-anything/ I have to make an in everyday, long af essay and english is not even my natural born languege.SEND HELP. Agreed with some comments below that for some kind of essays up to 2k words everything you need is imagination and nothing else. Especially if you have internet then not a sinple paper work seem hard for me.
The internet definitely makes writing papers easier. Thanks for the comment! Hello, I#8217;m need to write a thesis for my uni#8217;s project this year. But, I#8217;m having a problem with my topic, is it a good topic or not? I#8217;m not sure, will you help me? My thesis topic is, #8220;Students#8217; perception on integrity, as one of the NDUM characteristics.#8221; *NDUM is my university, so I want to the giver quotes, know how this integrity give an effect to the students, in the way of education. Define Dehumanization! I think you#8217;re off to a good start, but you still need to take a stance on the giver quotes, your topic. Here is an example of what I mean: #8220;Students#8217; perception of integrity, which is one of NDUM#8217;s characteristics, has a strong impact on how student success in in everyday, education.#8221; In a paper with that thesis, you could explore how positive/strong perceptions of integrity affect success and/or how weak perceptions of integrity impact success. Another approach, if you want to focus only on positive impacts, might be: #8220;Students who have a strong perception of integrity, one of NDUM#8217;s core characteristics, tend to the giver quotes, be more successful in Essay on Liberalism and the, their educational endeavors.#8221; I hope these ideas help you narrow down your topic a bit!
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Be free to dehumanization, inquire more. The Giver! Email: [emailprotected] . I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about themes in everyday use, mental health. I don#8217;t know specifically what to write about because the topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an quotes, advice on define dehumanization, this? I#8217;m writing a 10-12 page essay about mental health. I don#8217;t know specifically what to the giver quotes, write about themes, because the topic itself is so broad. Can someone give ma an quotes, advice on this? You#8217;re right that #8220;mental health#8221; is a really broad topic. If you#8217;re writing an argumentative essay, you need to Genocide, come up with an approach/stance that#8217;s a) debatable and the giver quotes b)provable. Here are a few examples of possible approaches: Argue that the government (national, local, etc.) has a responsibility to increase funding for mental health initiatives.
Should free mental health therapy be offered in schools? Argue in favor of/against. Does the mental health of parents impact their children? Why or why not? There are a lot of use possibilities here, but I hope those spark some ideas for how you can narrow your topic to be more specific. Happy writing! Thank you. I started my essay on quotes, government should increse the dehumanization, fundings. Now I#8217;m on my thesis statement. i just started this. do you think this will improve my spelling problem. I am writing a 25000 minimum word essay. #128577; That#8217;s a long one, but you can totally do it.
Just make sure to organize your ideas before you start. The Giver Quotes! You might want to check out https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/argumentative-essay-outline/ . This outline template can work just as easily for a 25000-word essay as it would a 500-word essay depending on how many claims you#8217;re making and how much evidence you use to Essay, back them up. Much respect for your decision to go back to school! What an the giver quotes, awesome example you#8217;re setting for of propanol, your kids #128578; I would definitely recommend that you explore some of our (many, many) other blog posts for writing help. I#8217;m obviously biased, but they#8217;re a fantastic resource for getting un-stuck. As for the giver, this essay, I think that there are definitely some argumentative angles you could take with the subject of define dehumanization autism. Off the top of my head: 1. Quotes! Argue that autism should (or should not be) classified as a disorder/disability.
For instance, some suggest that it#8217;s simply a type of neurodiversity and should not be treated as something #8220;wrong,#8221; just different. 2. Argue that autism stems from (or does not stem from) environmental factors. The vaccine debate is perhaps the most popular example of this argument, but there are a host of other causes that doctors, researchers, and about parents have considered too. 3. Argue that Asperger#8217;s syndrome is/is not different from high-functioning autism.
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Le professionnalisme en anesthesie. Le debat fait rage quant a savoir si le professionnalisme medical n’est en fait qu’un element de plus impose a notre pratique par la bureaucratie ou s’il s’agit d’un concept fondamental pour les medecins, quel que soit le stade de leur carriere. The Giver. Dans ce compte rendu, nous explorons les perspectives historiques du professionnalisme ainsi que le pourquoi et le comment de ce concept. Les mots cles « professionnalisme » et « anesthesie » ont ete utilises (en anglais) pour realiser une recherche dans la base de donnees PubMed, dans les politiques et publications des organismes et organisations de reglementation des medecins pertinents au Canada et a l’international, dans les documents historiques et dans d’autres publications en ligne. Le professionnalisme beneficie d’une longue histoire en anesthesie. Bien qu’il existe de nombreuses definitions de ce terme, dont certaines tres surannees, toutes se fondent sur des vertus, des comportements ou une identite professionnelle. Why Is Management. Le professionnalisme joue un role central dans l’equilibre entre autonomie du medecin et contrat social, et il a un impact majeur sur la securite des patients et les litiges medicolegaux. Il existe un nombre important de donnees factuelles soutenant qu’il faut prendre le professionnalisme au serieux, particulierement a l’heure de l’imputabilite sociale et des pressions budgetaires. “You are in this profession as a calling, not as a business; as a calling which exacts from you at every turn self-sacrifice, devotion, love and tenderness to your fellow men.”—William Osler 1. Professionalism has a long history in medicine and in anesthesia. James Young Simpson discovered chloroform as an the giver anesthetic at a dinner party on on Liberalism vs Conservatism and the Blurring, November 4, 1847 and reported its properties and uses in the Lancet in 1847.
2 Another pioneer, John Snow, published a series of quotes manuscripts on anesthesia administration. 3 - 7 In 1853, Snow was called to administer chloroform to dehumanization Queen Victoria for the birth of the giver quotes Prince Leopold, and chloroform a la reine provided legitimacy for labour analgesia. There are three fundamental principles in the 2002 Physician Charter of the of combustion American Board of quotes Internal Medicine (ABIM) and in the European Federation of Internal Medicine (EFIM), namely, the primacy of patient welfare, patient autonomy, and social justice. 8 Simpson’s work on labour analgesia – despite opposition suggesting that labour analgesia was “contrary to Genocide God’s will” – and his scientific conviction to the giver quotes discover chloroform are cited as exemplars of themes professionalism. 9 John Snow illustrated professionalism by his commitment to the giver improve his understanding of anesthesia and to direct his medical practice entirely toward this purpose, a first at the time. In early 20th century, three American anesthesiologists, Ralph Milton Waters, Francis H. McMechan, and Elmer I. Satisfaction. McKeeson, demonstrated exceptional professionalism. 10 Waters instituted rigorous anesthesia training programs for medical students and residents.
With Lundy and Wood, Waters established specialty certification in the giver quotes anesthesiology. Despite crippling rheumatoid arthritis, McMechan helped organize the define American Association of the giver quotes Anesthetists, and in 1914, McMechan persuaded the American Journal of management important Surgery to the giver begin publishing the Quarterly Supplement of Anesthesia and Analgesia . Dehumanization. In 1915, McMechan, Long, and McKeeson co-founded the the giver International Anesthesia Research Society, and in 1922, Current Researches in Essay Anesthesia and the giver Analgesia , the first journal exclusively for anesthesia, was launched with McMechan as editor. A strong commitment to patients, the profession, and society, qualities at the core of professionalism, ran deep in these early pioneers. By June 2016, PubMed included 5,898 manuscripts on medical professionalism. Not surprisingly, the definition of professionalism can be confusing. 11 In 2005, the Working Party of the Royal College of Physicians stated, “Medical professionalism signifies a set of values, behaviours, and relationships that underpins the trust the Essay vs Conservatism and the of Lines public has in doctors.” 12 Some have a “…I know it when I see it….” 13 approach to quotes professionalism. The Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA) states, “Professionalism is at the core of medical practice and the basis of medicine’s contract with society. Physicians are expected to demonstrate their commitment to patients, society, and the profession through ethical practice.” 14.
At least three different perspectives on dehumanization, professionalism exist: a) virtue-based, “the good physician” is good at heart and a “person of the giver character”; b) behaviour-based, emphasizing milestones, competencies, and measureable observable behaviours; and c) professional identity formation. 15 There may be areas of incongruence in these different perspectives during implementation, and two additional cross-currents, professional autonomy and define social accountability, also deserve comment. The Royal College of Physicians in the UK stated the quotes following values in their 2005 Working Group Report: “integrity”, “compassion”, “altruism”, and in everyday “excellence”. The ABIM listed the following elements: “altruism”, “accountability”, “excellence”, “duty”, “honour and integrity”, and “respect for others”. 16 The Australian Medical Association (AMA) lists the following values of professionalism: “respect, trust, compassion, altruism, integrity, advocacy and justice, accountability, protection of the giver confidentiality, leadership, collaboration, advancing knowledge and innovation, teaching, mentoring and heat of propanol collegiality, and practicing and the giver quotes promoting responsible stewardship of health care resources”.
17 In CanMeds 2005 and 2015, the Royal College of Physicians and Essay about In Darfur Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) cited the the giver quotes following values: “integrity”, “honesty”, “altruism”, “humility”, “respect for in everyday, diversity”, and “transparency”. 18 , 19 The Canadian Medical Association (CMA) states that the “Ethic of Care” is “characterized by the values of compassion, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for persons and justice”. 20 In 2015, the ePanel Survey by the giver quotes, the CMA showed that the top adjectives to describe a medical professional were “dedicated”, “compassionate”, “competent”, “available”, “altruistic”, and “collaborative”. On Liberalism Vs Conservatism And The Blurring Of Lines. 21. The Declaration of Geneva, first developed in the giver 1948, states, “the health of my patient will be my first consideration”.
22 The same principle is why is coastal management, reflected in the Physician Charter, 8 the CMA Medical Professionalism Policy, 20 the AMA, 17 the New Zealand Medical Association (NZMA) 23 and the New Zealand Medical Council, 24 the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the giver Ontario (CPSO), 25 and le College du medecins du Quebec (CMQ). 26 Similarly, patient autonomy, as stipulated in the ABIM – EFIM Physician Charter, 8 is echoed in many organizational policies. 20 , 23 , 26 , 27 Social justice, last of the fundamental principles in the Charter, is heat of combustion, a call “upon the the giver quotes profession to promote a fair distribution of health care resources”. 8 Justice, an axiom of medical ethics, is also echoed in many of the policies. 17 , 23 , 26 - 28. The social contract between physicians and society is management, mentioned in most policies. The CMA Medical Professionalism Policy states, “Medical professionalism includes both the relationship between a physician and the giver a patient and define dehumanization a social contract between physicians and society.” 20 The Physician Charter, 8 the AMA, 17 and the NZMA Code of Ethics 23 all echo this principle. Virtues are difficult to measure and evaluate; however, the same cannot be said of behaviour. The Giver. Indeed, CanMeds 2015 identifies “professional duties” and “milestones” that are evaluated, 18 and the Physician Charter stipulates “a set of professional responsibilities” as being important. Themes In Everyday Use. 8 The CMA outlined that fundamental responsibilities, including those to the patient, society, profession, and to oneself, guide professionalism through physician behaviour. 28 Responsibilities to the profession and to quotes oneself (i.e., wellness) are expectations found in many organizational policies.
These expectations have percolated from national and international contexts 26 , 27 , 29 to institutions (e.g., hospitals and why is coastal management medical schools) as responsibilities, duties, or codes of conduct. The stipulated conduct includes prohibiting disruptive behaviour, harassment (sexual or non-sexual), discrimination, and the giver quotes conflicts of interest, as well as obscuring boundaries between a physician and patient and/or teacher and learner. More recently, issues of professionalism involving the Internet have escalated in importance, ranging from dehumanization posting inappropriate videos and cyberbullying to breach of the giver confidentiality with e-mail or images. Clearly defined expectations, actions, and evaluations are at the core of behaviour-based professionalism, with the aim to reduce uncertainty and misunderstanding. “Organized professionalism” codifies expectations between the institution and the healthcare profession 30 but may risk disenchantment among healthcare professionals. “Multiple institutional logics” 30 derived from professional, organizational, and policy perspectives may be distinct and divergent. In Everyday Use. Physicians often face complex demands while trying to make a “clumsy system work to meet patients’ demands”, sometimes resulting in disrespectful behaviour.
31 Instead, “a culture of respect requires that the the giver quotes institutions develop effective methods for responding to episodes of disrespectful behavior while also initiating the cultural changes needed to prevent such episodes from Essay on Liberalism vs Conservatism and the occurring.” 32 In the the giver quotes CPSO Disruptive Behaviour Guidebook, whether “behaviour truly disrupts” depends “… also on the context in which it arises and the consequences flowing from it.” 33 Context matters. To enhance physician engagement while enforcing institutional professionalism, a bilateral commitment in the form of define dehumanization physician compacts has been recommended between the institution and individual physicians. 30 , 34 - 36. Professional identity formation (PIF) To focus solely on behaviour assessments may limit opportunities to internalize what it means to be a physician, 37 i.e., focusing on the giver, “who one is” may be as important, if not more, as “what one does”. Cruess 38 reported on Merton’s work from on Liberalism vs Conservatism and the Blurring 1957 that PIF is to “transmit the culture of medicine and… to the giver quotes shape the dehumanization novice into an effective practitioner of quotes medicine, to give him the best available knowledge and skills, and to provide him with a professional identity so that he comes to think, act, and feel like a physician.” In PIF, a social structure, such as a residency cohort, medical class, or a physician grouping, influences a novice through socialization and social control, thereby internalizing their social construct or culture. Why Is Management Important. In time, as experience is gained, the social construct can be modified. 39 The social structure’s perspective on reality – i.e., “this is our way of quotes doing things” – can be a significant part of the dehumanization “hidden curriculum”.
During medical student clinical placements, many learn a “loss of the giver idealism” through this hidden curriculum. 40 With increases in causes social accountability and public scrutiny into physician practice, however, tension develops in the social construct or in the professional identity. Professional identity formation allows opportunities in the giver medical education to define define and the giver internalize current group identities. 38 The transition junctures (e.g., pre-clerkship, clerkship, beginning of residency, beginning a new hospital or faculty appointment) representing these opportunities are critical. At each point, one must navigate the dual identities 39 of Essay about Genocide In Darfur becoming a physician and joining a transitory social group (medical student, resident, etc.) Therefore, PIF goes beyond assessing behaviours but does provide an opportunity for the giver quotes, learners or novices to internalize the professional identity. Physician autonomy and social accountability. Recent resurgence in social accountability comes from causes of job satisfaction a perception that the medical profession is unable to address many societal healthcare problems. 41 - 43 Over 30,000 articles on the giver, social accountability are listed in PubMed. In the Global Consensus for Social Accountability of Medical Schools, which has strong Canadian representation, the first strategic direction for medical schools is to “respond to current and heat of combustion of propanol future health needs and challenges in society”. 44 , 45.
Physician autonomy is entrenched in many physicians’ understanding of “social contract”. A certain degree of quotes tension may exist between physician autonomy and social accountability. For example, one study has examined an individual physician’s responsibility in a risky duty such as caring for in everyday, SARS patients. The Giver Quotes. 46 The current debate on abortion and define dehumanization physician-assisted dying 47 - 49 will likely keep this tension alive. Mirvis cited four reasons for the origin of physician autonomy: 1) medicine is a specialized body of knowledge; 2) society values the work by the medical profession and trusts the profession to the giver act in the public’s best interests; 3) there is an use expectation that public interests are promoted by medical professional organizations; and 4) the state, the government, or, in Canada’s case, the provincial legislature has granted autonomy to the profession. 50 In other words, autonomy is quid pro quo for the profession’s social accountability. Professionalism and cultural competency.
Much of Western society’s medical professionalism is the giver quotes, derived from Hippocrates, circa 460 BCE. In sixth century India, Kasyapa Samhita laid down precepts to guide new medical graduates. 51 In China, the Huangdi Neijing (Inner Canon), from the fourth century BCE to the first century CE, served the same role, and the “ideal physician envisioned in the Inner Canon combines ‘supreme virtue’ (zhi de) with ‘supreme skill’(zhi qiao)”. Coastal. 52 Differences exist 53 - 57 when professionalism is compared among modern day cultures, including indigenous peoples, with “…substantial differences between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in their expectations of doctors…”. 58 With respect to virtues, there is generally more commonality between cultures; however, with regard to behaviour and the giver PIF, there is divergence between cultures that may need to be heeded. “ What happens if you fail to meet the obligations under the social contract? Canadians will change that contract and redefine professionalism for you. Themes In Everyday. Regulations and changes will be forced upon you—quite possibly in the giver quotes forms that diminish or remove your self-regulatory privilege. One of the best ways for you and for men and women in dehumanization any profession to quotes avoid having change forced upon of combustion of propanol, you is to the giver quotes relentlessly embrace new ideas, tenaciously set and reach higher standards and, most importantly, passionately strive to ensure your profession serves the Essay Blurring of Lines public good.” —Governor General David Johnston 59. There are many reasons why professionalism matters – social contract, patient safety, and litigation are key areas for careful consideration.
The incidence of physician disruptive behaviour, as observed by physicians, is reported to the giver be 49-77%, 60 - 63 and in one study, sexual boundary violations are reported to be 14.5%. 64 After a number of high-profile scandals, changes were made to Essay on Liberalism Blurring of Lines self-regulation under the General Medical Council in the UK after 150 years: “Powers of setting standards, monitoring practice, and managing defaults have been relocated to outside the profession”. The Giver Quotes. 65 A general surgeon in the UK was recently charged with manslaughter for not performing surgery in a timely fashion, and he was found guilty. About Genocide In Darfur. 66 In China, the incidence of violence against the giver physicians tripled from 2002 to 2010 as physicians were perceived to be motivated by Essay, profit and the giver poorly trained. In Everyday Use. 67 Society does not grant autonomy and self-regulation to physicians with impunity but with the proviso that the social contract is honoured. A lack of the giver professionalism in the healthcare team compromises patient safety.
Physician burnout has been correlated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, leading some to “… become more callous toward people”. Of Job Satisfaction. 68 Risk factors for burnout include number of hours worked and the giver night calls, and burnout itself increases the incidence of self-reported medical errors. Define. 69 , 70 In one study, the odds ratio (OR) of quotes self-reported medical errors in heat of propanol the presence of burnout was 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 2.28). 71 In the Canadian physician health practices survey, 21% of quotes respondents admitted to anhedonia for ? two weeks in the past year; 23% admitted to depression for ? two weeks, and 37% of those “thought about death a lot during those ? two weeks”. Themes. 72 There is good reason why physician wellness is a key commitment under professionalism. In an analysis of surgical errors, two of the three most frequent causal factors were communication breakdown among personnel and fatigue/excessive workload at 43% and the giver quotes 33%, respectively. 73 In one perioperative study, participants thought that disruptive behaviour caused loss of concentration (84%), reduced collaboration (89%), reduced information transfer (86%), and reduced communication (89%) at of propanol the time. 63 In the Institute of Medicine report, To Err is Human, it is stated that “health care organizations [must] develop a ‘culture of the giver safety’ such that their workforce and processes are focused on improving the Essay about Genocide reliability and safety of care for quotes, patients.” 74 The TeamSTEPPS program, an initiative resulting from the report, focuses on “medical teamwork … to ensure that the RIGHT INFORMATION is provided to the RIGHT PERSON(S) at the RIGHT TIME resulting in Essay vs Conservatism the RIGHT ACTION(S).” 75 Teamwork and communication, another essential part of professionalism, has been confirmed as a key ingredient of patient safety.
76 - 83. A lack of professionalism in dealing with our patients may increase the risk of litigation. In one study, mothers of infants with permanent injuries or deaths were interviewed by telephone using a structured questionnaire and open-ended questions. Among the families who initiated lawsuits, the reasons they cited were physicians who “would not listen” (13%), “would not talk openly” (32%), or “attempted to mislead them” (48%). 84 Negative communication behaviour by physicians has also been shown to increase the risk of malpractice lawsuits. 85 Patients who were left “feeling rushed”, “never receiving explanations for tests”, or “were ignored” were more likely to file complaints against physicians. 86 Similarly, physicians with the most unsolicited patient complaints have been shown to have the most “risk management files” which possibly lead to legal action. 87. Professionalism may be defined based on virtues, codified expectations and conduct, or professional identity. These are broad issues; hence, to the giver improve professionalism necessitates system-wide strategies as well as changes on an individual level.
Accordingly, the following broad categories provide a framework for improving professionalism, although admittedly, each category alone could represent a review topic. Without clear expectations, it is difficult for individual physicians or an organization to develop a coherent professional identity. Define. Policies, charters, codes of conduct, or declarations are some of the existing means to the giver formalize those expectations. Many medical schools have instituted white coat ceremonies to make the commitment to professionalism clear to their students. Elsewhere, institutions have implemented physician compacts that are reviewed at annual reappointments. 34. Studies have also shown that physicians whose licences are suspended by State Medical Boards have a higher prevalence of prior unprofessional behaviour in medical schools (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.9 to 4.8) 88 and in residency (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to causes of job 2.2). 89 This affirms the imperative that medical schools must introduce professionalism with defined expectations and strategies.
In a few cases, individuals may be identified who may not benefit from continuing in the profession. Developing professionalism policies or charters often does not translate into understanding such policies or how they directly affect individuals. This is the “knowledge translation” aspect of professionalism policies. The Giver. Also, times change and expectations evolve. For example, the convenience of storing research or patient care information on a USB drive without the capability to encrypt was relatively common, but these days, it is of job, absolutely inappropriate. For medical students, awareness of professionalism may involve a formal curriculum, case-based learning, portfolios, and role models. Formal curricula may include delineating professional identity at critical transition points in one’s career. For physicians, this may take the form of physician engagement initiatives, individual feedback, orientation sessions, or continuing professional development venues which may or may not be mandatory.
“Physician wellness is a critical component of the professional practice of the giver quotes medicine. Wellness is defined as the satisfaction condition of good physical and mental health necessary to provide high quality care to patients and to fulfill the duties…” 29. The association between a lack of wellness and disruptive behaviour and patient safety events has already been discussed. 69 - 72 The Ontario Medical Association has a Physician Health Program to assess at-risk physicians as well as physician wellness. Many institutions have established workplace wellness offices to provide support and guidance to physicians. Feedback on professionalism concerns is essential. Many physicians are unaware that their behaviour may be a concern unless direct feedback is provided. The feedback may take the form of annual reappointment assessments, peer assessments, 360° evaluations, professionalism concern report forms, or other similar procedures. For feedback/awareness to be effective, a consistent and transparent process must be in the giver quotes place, even though the feedback itself remains confidential.
For some medical schools, teaching hospitals are affiliated institutions and the appointment and credentialling process is separate from the school. Due to heat of combustion privacy legislation, professionalism concerns may not necessarily be shared between a hospital and the medical school. For example, a physician who may be close to being suspended by a hospital for disruptive behaviour may be close to being promoted at the faculty of medicine, or a clinician teacher found harassing a female medical student is also harassing a female hospital employee. Physicians with professionalism concerns have also moved from one institution to the giver quotes another or from of job satisfaction one province to another without the receiving institution gaining knowledge of the prior concerns. There is always a balance between privacy, a “fresh start”, and medical professionalism as a social contract with social accountability. Quotes. While controversial, it is necessary to have the Essay about In Darfur conversation and to find the balance to share that information. Undoubtedly, to maintain physician autonomy and self-regulation, serious professionalism concerns deserve proper redress and quotes accountability. Many models have been developed to Genocide advance professionalism, 38 , 42 , 90 - 93 and I encourage the reader to quotes peruse the abundant literature. A staged or tiered approach to professionalism concerns has been described. 94 The CMPA, 95 the CPSO, 33 the Essay on Liberalism vs Conservatism Blurring University of Ottawa, 96 and quotes others have adopted a tiered approach. Early discussions at stages 1 and 2 are generally opportunities for Essay about Genocide In Darfur, formative interventions.
Measures at stage 3 tend to be for egregious or persistent behaviour despite formative intervention and can involve disciplinary action. “The times have changed, [conditions] of practice have altered and are altering rapidly, but when such a celebration takes us back to your origin in simpler days and ways, we find that the ideals which inspired them are ours to-day — ideals which are ever old, yet always fresh and new” — William Osler 97. This submission was handled by Dr. Hilary P. Grocott, Editor-in-Chief, Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. /media/Files/Report%20Files/1999/To-Err-is-Human/To%20Err%20is%20Human%201999%20%20report%20brief.pdf (accessed June 2016). Homer Yang 1 Email authorView author's OrcID profile 1. Department of Anesthesiology The Ottawa Hospital Ottawa Canada. Published in cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley.
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The good news is that you can use a variety of the giver persuasive and descriptive writing tools and tactics to communicate your own pet peeves productively and interest your targeted audience. Don’t forget that your understanding of themes use how to write a perfect essay on pet peeves can make a huge difference in getting high grades and achieving your academic success. If you don’t have it, you can always count on professional essay writing services, such as the quotes one offered by our skilled writers at heat of propanol reasonable rates. As a student, you need to evaluate your major pet peeves and choose the biggest one, such as squeaking nails on the board, talking on the giver quotes, a cell phone during a movie, talking with a mount full of why is coastal food, and so on. Pay attention to your expressions of surprise, horror, or confusion while considering possible ideas for your pet peeves essay. This is when you should ask a few basic questions to be guided in the right direction. Why do you think this behavior bothers you?
What would you feel like without it? Another effective thing that you can do is brainstorming a list of several behaviors that you find the most irksome. The Giver? What are your personal pet peeves? What can make you jump out of your skin? Take your time to themes in everyday use make a list of these points and answer this questions in detail to be sure to write a great apa essay. Finally, pick a few ones and the giver, try to free-write about them and coastal important, reasons why these behaviors annoy you (state your personal opinion). Excellent Topic Ideas for Your Pet Peeve Essay. You should write at least a few descriptive paragraphs to explain readers why particular things really annoy you. Focus on excellent examples and personal experiences because including them in your academic paper is a good idea.
Have you ever observed people engaged in quotes this annoying behavior? When and where did it happen? What have happened? Do your best to why is management important describe this scene as interesting as possible to come up with a perfect turabian paper. Have you ever talked to people doing annoying things? If no, describe your motifs. If so, write more about your words and actions. Why some people engage in the behavior that annoys you?
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Planning and dehumanization, Researching Your Paper. Start with writing a basic outline and make sure it includes all important points. The Giver Quotes? Take into consideration all standard rules, professors’ recommendations, and so on. Once you choose a specific topic, gather relevant and important, updated information only from the reliable sources of information, such as any sample case study. Make sure your research is not off-topic if you want your academic paper be logic and interesting to read.
Once your research is done, check out if you have enough facts and examples to write a good paper. Pay attention to relevant pet peeve essay examples because they can provide you with a set of original and unique ideas and quotes, learn how to defend your point of view. Tips on dehumanization, Crafting the Best Pet Peeve Essay. Start with writing the first draft. This is how you can organize your thoughts and facts in a more logical manner. Draw a detailed map because it will help you structure your paper correctly. This is what enables you to flow from one idea to another and see their progression as you write. You should ensure that this outline is quite neat because it determines the entire future pet peeve essay writing process. When writing its first draft, you need to focus on the main ideas, and this means putting a lot of the giver emphasis on grammar and spelling is causes, a bad decision.
Just make sure you write down all important details and see what your paper looks like. Take a break once the first copy of your paper is finished. When it comes to your writing an opinion essay, this step is important because it allows you to refresh your mind and improve this draft after rereading it. Once this process is complete, you need to highlight the areas that should be improved or rewritten and fix all the mistakes you find.
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alice paul essay A vocal leader of the twentieth century women’s suffrage movement, Alice Paul advocated for and helped secure passage of the 19 th Amendment to the US Constitution, granting women the right to vote. Paul next authored the Equal Rights Amendment in 1923, which has yet to be adopted. Born on the giver, January 11, 1885 in Mount Laurel, New Jersey, Paul was the oldest of four children of Tacie Parry and William Paul, a wealthy Quaker businessman. Paul’s parents embraced gender equality, education for women, and working to improve society. Paul’s mother, a suffragist, brought her daughter with her to women’s suffrage meetings. Paul attended Swarthmore College, a Quaker school cofounded by her grandfather, graduating with a biology degree in 1905. She attended the New York School of Philanthropy (now Columbia University) and received a Master of Arts degree in sociology in 1907. She then went to heat England to study social work, and after returning, earned a PhD from the University of Pennsylvania in 1910.
While in England, Paul met American Lucy Burns, and joining the the giver quotes, women’s suffrage efforts there, they learned militant protest tactics, including picketing and hunger strikes. Back in the United States, in Essay of Lines, 1912, Paul and Burns joined the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), with Paul leading the Washington, DC chapter. NAWSA primarily focused on state-by-state campaigns; Paul preferred to lobby Congress for a constitutional amendment. Such differences led Paul and quotes, others to split with NAWSA and form the National Woman's Party. Borrowing from her British counterparts, Paul organized parades and pickets in support of heat of combustion of propanol, suffrage. The Giver Quotes! Her first — and the largest — was in Washington, DC, on March 3, 1913, the day before President-elect Woodrow Wilson’s inauguration. Approximately eight thousand women marched with banners and causes, floats down Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the White House, while a half million spectators watched, supported and harassed the marchers. On March 17, Paul and other suffragists met with Wilson, who said it was not yet time for an amendment to the Constitution. On April 7, Paul organized a demonstration and founded the Congressional Union for quotes Woman Suffrage to focus specifically on lobbying Congress.
In January 1917, Paul and over 1,000 “Silent Sentinels” began eighteen months of picketing the White House, standing at the gates with such signs as, “Mr. President, how long must women wait for liberty?” They endured verbal and physical attacks from spectators, which increased after the US entered World War I. Instead of protecting the women’s right to free speech and peaceful assembly, the about Genocide, police arrested them on the flimsy charge of obstructing traffic. The Giver! Paul was sentence to jail for seven months, where she organized a hunger strike in protest. Doctors threatened to send Paul to an insane asylum and force-fed her, while newspaper accounts of of job, her treatment garnered public sympathy and support for quotes suffrage. By 1918, Wilson announced his support for suffrage. It took two more years for coastal important the Senate, House, and the required 36 states to the giver quotes approve the amendment. Afterward, Paul and the National Women’s Party focused on the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to guarantee women constitutional protection from discrimination. About! Paul spent her life advocating for quotes this and other women’s issues. The ERA was ratified by 35 states in the 1970s, but by the 1982 deadline was three states short of 38 needed to Essay on Liberalism vs Conservatism and the Blurring become a constitutional amendment.
Edited by the giver, Debra Michals, Ph.D. “Alice Paul.” Lakewood Public Library, n.d., (Accessed February 28, 2006). “Alice Paul.” Alice Paul Institute, revised 27 February 2006, (Accessed February 28, 2006). On Liberalism And The Blurring Of Lines! Alice Paul. Civil Rights in the United States . Ed. The Giver! Waldo E. Martin, Jr. and Patricia Sullivan. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2000. U.S.
History in coastal management, Context . Accessed February 17, 2015. The Giver Quotes! Cott, Nancy F. The Grounding of Modern Feminism . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1987. Flexner, Eleanor. A Century of Struggle: The Woman's Rights Movement in the United States . Of Combustion Of Propanol! Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1996. Frost, Elizabeth, and Kathryn Cullen-DuPont.
Women's Suffrage in America: An Eyewitness History . New York: Facts on File, 1992. Paul, Alice. American Social Reform Movements Reference Library . Ed. Carol Brennan, et al. Vol. 3: Biographies. Detroit: UXL, 2007. 211-220. U.S. History in Context . Accessed March 26, 2015.
Paul, Alice. Prejudice in the Modern World Reference Library . Vol. The Giver! 3: Biographies. Detroit: UXL, 2007. 185-193. U.S. History in Context . Accessed February 17, 2015. “Who Is Alice Paul?” Sewall-Belmont House and Museum. Satisfaction! Accessed February 18, 2015. “Who Was Alice Paul? Alice Paul: Feminist, Suffragist and Political Strategist.” The Alice Paul Institute. Accessed February 17, 2015. Weatherford, Doris.
American Women’s History: An A to Z of the giver quotes, People, Organizations, Issues, and Events . New York: Macmillan General Reference, 1994. PHOTO: Library of Congress. Of Propanol! MLA - Michals, Debra. The Giver Quotes! Alice Paul. National Women's History Museum. In Everyday! National Women's History Museum, 2015. Date accessed. Chicago - Michals, Debra. Alice Paul. National Women's History Museum.
2015. www.womenshistorymuseum.org/education-resources/biographies/alice-paul. Butler, Amy E. Two Paths to Equality: Alice Paul and the giver, Ethel M. Smith in the Era Debate, 1921-1929. New York: State University of New York Press, 2002. Haynes, Inez. The Story of the Woman's Party New York: Kraus Reprints, 1971, c1921. Lunardini, Christine. From Equal Suffrage to Equal Rights: Alice Paul and the National Woman’s Party, 1910-1928. IUniverse, 2000. Raum, Elizabeth. Alice Paul . Heinemann, 2004. [for ages 4-8] Lunardini, Christine A. Themes Use! From Equal Suffrage to Equal Rights: Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party, 1910–1928 . New York: New York University Press, 1986. Raum, Elizabeth.
Alice Paul . Chicago, IL: Heinemann Library, 2004.
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essay on the giver the wire Jason Mittell calls David Simon’s bluff: to what degree is The Wire really like a “televised novel”? To what degree is it more like a video game? Why not classify it as what it really is - a genre-spawning “masterpiece” in and the Blurring, the medium of television. The Wire (2002-2008) is the giver, paradigmatic of a critical darling - few people watch it (at least in themes in everyday, the numbers typical of commercial television), but it generates adoration and evangelism by nearly all who do. Television critics have taken it on themselves to lobby their readers to give the show a chance, asking reluctant viewers to overlook its dark and cynical worldview to see the the giver truth and beauty offered by its searing vision into the bleak heart of the U.S. About Genocide In Darfur! city. Thankfully for us scattered fans, HBO has allowed the show to continue for five seasons, even without a clear sense that the show’s dedicated fandom leads to quotes overt profitability. This chapter was composed in the interim between seasons four and five, and thus only refers to the show’s first four seasons. The author would like to thank the heat readers of his blog, Just TV, for the thoughtful feedback posted about a draft of this chapter as well as the comments by this volume’s editors.
What is most interesting to me about the critical praise deservedly lavished on The Wire is the giver, not how it may or may not yield an increase in viewership but how the causes satisfaction critical consensus seems to situate the show distinctly within the frame of quotes another medium. For many critics, bloggers, fans, and management important even creator David Simon himself, The Wire is best understood not as a television series but as a “visual novel.” As a television scholar, this cross-media metaphor bristles - not because I don’t like novels but because I love television. And I believe that television at its best shouldn’t be understood simply as emulating another older and more culturally valued medium. The Wire is a masterpiece of television, not a novel that happens to be televised, and thus should be understood, analyzed, and celebrated on its own medium’s terms. Yet thinking comparatively across media can be quite rewarding as a critical exercise, illuminating what makes a particular medium distinctive, and how its norms and assumptions might be rethought. So before considering how the show operates televisually, what does thinking of The Wire as a novel teach us about the show? And might other cross-media metaphors yield other insights?
The Wire ’s novelistic qualities are most directly linked to its storytelling structure and ambitions. As Simon attests in frequent interviews and quotes commentary tracks, he is looking to about In Darfur tell a large sweeping story that has traditionally been the purview of the novel, at least within the realm of culturally legitimate formats. He highlights how each season offers its own structural integrity, much like a specific book within a larger epic novel, and each episode stands as a distinct chapter in that book. The model, modestly left unspoken, might be War and Peace , a vast narrative containing fifteen “books,” each subdivided into at least a dozen chapters and released serially over the giver quotes five years - Simon has less modestly mentioned Moby-Dick as another point of of combustion comparison, although that epic novel was neither serialized nor subdivided into books. In The Wire , each season focuses on a particular facet of Baltimore and slowly builds into a cohesive whole. An episode typically does not follow the self-contained logic of most television programming, as story lines are introduced gradually and the giver major characters might take weeks to appear. “Novelistic” is an themes apt term for describing this storytelling structure, as we rarely dive into a novel expecting the first chapter to typify the whole work as a television pilot is designed to do. Simon emphasizes how the show requires patience to allow stories to build and themes to the giver accrue - a mode of engagement he suggests is more typical of reading than viewing.
Enhancing the show’s novelistic claims is the presence of coastal well-regarded crime fiction writers like George Pelecanos, Richard Price, and Dennis Lehane on the staff, and Price’s novel Clockers is surely an influence with its dual focus on a criminal and a cop in the urban drug war. This parallel to the novel brings with it not just an imagined structure and scope but a host of assumed cultural values as well. While the novel’s history in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries featured numerous contestations over the form’s aesthetic and the giver cultural merits, by the time television emerged in Essay vs Conservatism and the of Lines, the mid-twentieth century, the literary novel’s cultural role was firmly ensconced as one of the most elite and privileged storytelling formats. As the most popular and culturally influential form of storytelling, television has usurped the role that the early novel played as a lowbrow mass medium threatening to corrupt its readers and the giver quotes demean cultural standards. By asserting The Wire as a televised novel, Simon and satisfaction critics are attempting to the giver legitimize and validate the important demeaned television medium by linking it to the highbrow cultural sphere of literature. The phrase “televised novel” functions as an oxymoron in its assumed cultural values, much like the term “soap opera” juxtaposes the extremities of art and commerce into a cultural contradiction. For The Wire , especially in its context of HBO’s slogan “It’s Not TV, It’s HBO,” the link to the novel rescues the show from the stigmas of its televised form, raising it above the commercialized swamp of the giver quotes ephemera imagined by management many as typical television. But I would contend that emphasizing the literary facets of The Wire obscures many of its virtues and qualities, setting it up to fail when measured by some of the aesthetic aims of the the giver quotes novel. While any form as diverse as the novel cannot be firmly defined as dependent on any singular theme or formal quality, we can point to some key features common to many novels that The Wire seems not to share. Novels typically probe the interior lives of Essay about their characters, both through plots that center on character growth and transformations, and through the quotes scope of Essay about Genocide In Darfur narration that accesses characters’ thoughts and beliefs. Even novels about a broad range of people and the giver quotes institutions often ground their vision of the world through the experiences of one or two central characters who transform through the narrative drive - for of job satisfaction, instance, a Charles Dickens novel like Bleak House examines institutions like the quotes legal system, but does so primarily through the experiences and perspective of a central character.
These features of characterization and interiority are certainly not unique to novels, and probably apply to many television series as well, but if The Wire is held as exemplar of the televised novel, we would assume that it shares the novel’s core treatment of character, which I believe it does not. Simon has suggested that The Wire is a show about the themes in everyday relationship between individuals and institutions - a claim that the program seems to uphold. The Giver! But I would argue that the point of define dehumanization emphasis is the giver, much more clearly on institutions rather than individuals, as within each of the social systems that the show explores - the police, the drug trade, the docks, city government, and the educational system - the institution is Genocide In Darfur, brought into focus through the lens of numerous characters. Certainly Jimmy McNulty is a central point of access to understand police bureaucracy and functions nominally as the show’s main character, but by season four he is in the giver quotes, the margins while characters like Cedric Daniels, “Bunny” Colvin, and Bunk Moreland provide alternate entry points to explore the police system. Likewise, we experience the drug trade through a range of characters from D’Angelo Barksdale to Stringer Bell, Omar Little to Bodie Broadus.
While all of these characters have depth and complexity, we rarely see much of their existence beyond how they fit into on Liberalism vs Conservatism and the of Lines their institutional roles. Even romantic relationships seem to foreground interinstitutional links between police, lawyers, and politicians more than interpersonal bonds that deepen characters’ inner lives and motivations. The Giver! The chronic alcoholism and infidelity of The Wire ’s police officers offers a portrait less of satisfaction flawed personalities than of a flawed institution; for instance, the police admire the the giver systematic discipline and coordination of Barksdale’s crew, which is distinctly lacking in the Baltimore Police Department. This is not to suggest that characters in The Wire are flat or merely cardboard cutouts enacting a social simulation. One of the themes use show’s most masterful features is its ability to the giver create achingly human characters out Essay Genocide In Darfur of the tiniest moments and subtle gestures, such as Lester Freamon silently sanding doll furniture, D’Angelo Barksdale picking out his clothes, or Bubbles walking through “Hamsterdam” in a daze trying to find himself.
But the way The Wire portrays its characters seems distinctly not novelistic: we get no internal monologues or speeches articulating characters’ deep thoughts, and quotes few senses of deep character goals or transformations motivating the dramatic actions. Character depth is conveyed through the texture of everyday life on the job - a set of on Liberalism vs Conservatism and the operating systems that work to dehumanize the characters at nearly every turn. The Giver Quotes! As Simon notes, The Wire has … resisted the idea that, in this post-modern America, individuals triumph over institutions. The institution is always bigger. It doesn’t tolerate that degree of individuality on any level for any length of time. These moments of epic characterization are inherently false. Genocide! They’re all rooted in, like, old Westerns or something. Quotes! Guy rides into town, cleans up the town, rides out of town. There’s no cleaning it up anymore. There’s no riding in, there’s no riding out.
The town is what it is. (Quoted in themes, Mills 2007) In the show’s character logic, the the giver institution is the defining element in a character’s life, externalized through practices, behaviors, and about Genocide choices that deny individuality and agency - a storytelling structure that seems contrary to principles typical of most literary novels. There are clearly aspects of the novel that have inspired The Wire - the sweeping storytelling scope, the attention to details of systems and characters, and the social issue probing of quotes works like The Jungle . Additionally, literary developments in recent decades have opened up the formal and about Genocide In Darfur stylistic possibilities of the genre, and thus there are certainly fictional trends that The Wire taps into. Ultimately, however, I contend that we should view The Wire using the lens of its actual medium of television to best understand and appreciate its achievements and importance. But viewing a text through the expectations and assumptions of another form can help us understand its particular cultural logic. Might other media metaphors be similarly useful, within limits, to help unravel The Wire ? Surely journalism and documentary would be apt comparisons, with Simon’s roots as a newspaperman and investment in the giver, creative nonfiction. Essay About Genocide! Yet I would like to quotes suggest that it might be useful to view the define program using the lens of a seemingly off-base medium, and hence offer a brief detour to the giver answer an unlikely question: How might we conceive of define The Wire as a video game? Let me preemptively acknowledge one significant limitation here: watching The Wire is quotes, not interactive, at of combustion of propanol least in the explicit mode that Eric Zimmerman (2004, 158) argues typifies games.
But then again, watching a game like baseball is also noninteractive - despite my ritualized efforts to superstitiously trigger my team’s good fortune via carefully chosen clothing, gestures, and behaviors, I have failed to alter the outcome of any Red Sox game (at least as far as I know). In thinking about a filmed series like The Wire as a game, we need to think of the quotes ludic elements within the show’s diegesis, not the interactive play that we expect when booting up a video game. Of Job Satisfaction! Thus The Wire might be thought of as a spectatorial game, being played on-screen for the benefit of an audience. Games certainly play a more crucial role within The Wire ’s storyworld than literature does, as its characters hardly ever seem to read, but can regularly be seen playing craps or golf, watching basketball or dogfighting. More centrally, nearly every episode has at least one reference to the giver quotes “the game,” a slang term for define dehumanization, the urban drug trade that extends to all of the show’s institutional settings. Within the the giver quotes show’s portrait of Baltimore, the about game is played in all venues - the corners, City Hall, the police station, and the union hall - and by a range of the giver quotes players - street-level junkies looking to score, corrupt politicians filling campaign coffers, cops bucking for promotion, stevedores trying to maintain the docks. “The game” is the why is overarching metaphor for urban struggle, as everyone must play or get played - as Marla Daniels tries to warn her husband, Cedric, “The game is rigged - you can’t lose if you don’t play” (episode 1.2). Sometimes characters are playing the same game, as the chase between the cops and Barksdale’s crew develops into a series of moves and countermoves, but some institutions engage in a different game altogether - in season one, the cops go to the FBI for help busting Barksdale’s drug and money-laundering system, but the quotes feds are only playing the terrorism and political corruption game. Ultimately, Bell is brought down by trying to play two games at once, and gets caught when the rules of the drug game conflict with the corporate political game.
Simon has suggested that the show’s goal is to “portray systems and institutions and be honest with ourselves and about Genocide In Darfur viewers about the giver, how complex these problems are” (quoted in Zurawik 2006). While Simon imagines that the televised novel is the form best suited to accomplish such goals, in today’s media environment, video games are the Genocide In Darfur go-to medium for portraying complex systems. Quotes! As Janet Murray writes, “The more we see life in terms of heat of combustion of propanol systems, the more we need a system-modeling medium to represent it - and the less we can dismiss such organized rule systems as mere games” (quoted in Moulthrop 2004, 64). The Giver Quotes! If novels typically foreground characterization and coastal management interiority in quotes, ways that The Wire seems to in everyday deny, video games highlight the complexity of interrelated systems and the giver quotes institutions that is one of the show’s strengths. Many video games are predicated on the logic of simulating complex systems, modeling an interrelated set of practices and protocols to explore how one choice ripples through an heat of combustion of propanol immersive world. Ian Bogost (2006, 98) defines a simulation as “a representation of a source system via a less complex system that informs the user’s understanding of the source system in a subjective way” - a formulation that certainly captures the essence of The Wire as a dramatic distillation of Baltimore’s institutional systems viewed through the critical perspective of Simon and his cowriters. We might imagine the show as a televisual adaptation of Will Wright’s landmark game SimCity (1989): an array of systems are dramatized, each with changing variables that ripple across the larger simulation model in unpredictable and often counterintuitive ways. SimCity functions as a “God game” at the giver quotes a macrolevel of control over the microdecisions of urban existence.
But The Wire dramatizes its institutions more through the actions of Essay Genocide characters in relation to the institution, blending the urban scope of SimCity with the personal focus typifying The Sims (2000), Wright’s most popular iteration of the the giver simulation game genre. Bogost analyzes the cellular structure of simulations, with units operating in dehumanization, microcontexts coalescing to create broader emergent systems. Such is often the case in The Wire ’s Baltimore; in the first episode, for instance, a chance violent encounter between Johnny Weeks and Bodie leads Bubbles to seek revenge on Barksdale’s organization, a small-scale unit operation that leads to the giver major institutional transformations for satisfaction, both the police and the giver quotes drug dealers. Such small occurrences and changes at the levels of both character and on Liberalism of Lines institution are followed throughout the the giver quotes series to model how institutions operate and infiltrate the Essay vs Conservatism Blurring lives of their employees and the giver quotes members - a mode of representation blending the logics of SimCity and Essay about In Darfur The Sims . One of the central elements of games, especially those centered on simulations, is replayability; for a game to be embraced by its players, it typically must allow enough experiential variation to invite multiple passes through its ludic journey. Instead of viewing each of The Wire ’s seasons as a singular book within an epic novel, we could view them as one play through its simulation game. In the the giver quotes first season, we walk through the police’s attempt to take down Barksdale’s drug operation, concluding seemingly in Essay on Liberalism, a “checkmate” scene where Avon Barksdale and Stringer Bell yield to the police’s final moves (1.12). Quotes! Yet rather than game over, the move results in a stalemate that no players deem victorious - a few criminals get sentenced, but the Barksdale machine remains intact.
Season three offers a replay with some changed variables and themes strategies for all sides: What if drugs are decriminalized? What if the drug trade goes legit through a conglomerated co-op rather than violent competition? What if a former soldier repents and tries to give back to his community? Given the the giver quotes show’s cynical vision of corrupt institutions, reform typically produces various forms of why is coastal management failure, as the parameters of the system are too locked in to the giver quotes truly produce social change or allow for an imagined solution to of combustion of propanol systemic problems; as Pryzbylewski notes in a later episode, referencing football but also his own life’s work, “No one wins - one side just loses more slowly” (4.4). Yet the ludic joy of the third season is the ability to replay the first season’s narrative through the imagination of new rules and the giver quotes ways to define dehumanization play the game - a mode of the giver engagement offered with less imaginative vision and more amoral brutality in season four’s replay of the in everyday drug game under the leadership of Marlo Stanfield.
The characters in quotes, The Wire , while quite human and multidimensional, are as narrowly defined in their possibilities as typical video game avatars. Management! They each do what they do because that is the way the game is played - Bubbles can’t get clean, McNulty can’t follow orders, Avon can’t stop fighting for his corners, and Frank Sobotka can’t let go of the glory days of the docks. The characters with both the will and quotes opportunity to change, like Bell, D’Angelo, or Colvin, find the systems too resistant, the “boss levels” too difficult, to overcome the status quo. The show offers a game that resists agency, a system impervious to change, and yet the players keep playing because that is all they know how to do. The opening scene in the series shows McNulty interviewing a witness to a murder, killed after trying to rob a craps game; even though the victim tried to “snatch and on Liberalism of Lines run” every Friday night, the the giver witness says that they had to let him play, because “it’s America, man” (1.1). The game must be played, no matter the cost. Throughout the series, the coastal moments of greatest conflict are where a player steps over the line and the giver quotes breaks the unwritten rules of his or her institution - shooting Omar on causes of job Sunday morning, Carver leaking information about Daniels, Nick Sobotka going beyond smuggling to enter the drug trade. In the show’s representation of Baltimore, the the giver quotes game is more than a metaphor; it is the social contract that just barely holds the world together. Season four offers a replay with an expansion pack complete with new avatars and settings, focusing on the kids of Tilghman Middle School. Satisfaction! The introduction of this new system triggers emotional distress - the rules of The Wire ’s simulation logic all but ensure that most of the children will end up broken and damaged, as that’s the way the game is the giver, played.
As we watch the season progress, the causes of job choices that the kids make and the actions that are enacted on them all function as unit operations, microinstances that begin to coalesce into larger systemic forces. We watch in hope that they each choose the quotes right moves, play by rules that we know well after three seasons, but realize that nobody wins - it’s just about who loses more slowly. It is a tribute to the efficacy of the show’s logic of define dehumanization emergent systems that the end result of quotes each child’s fate is both entirely unpredictable from the define dehumanization outset and completely inevitable given the way each played - and the giver quotes was played by - the game. Essay About Genocide In Darfur! As viewers, we also play along in rooting for particular players, tracking the near misses that could have changed each of their lives along the way, and quotes learning the lessons of the show’s simulation rhetoric. As Bogost (2006) observes, simulations make arguments and reinforce ideologies through their underlying rules and assumptions; The Wire serves as a prototype of about Genocide In Darfur a persuasive game, making arguments about the inefficacy of the drug war, the class politics of urban America, and the failure of U.S. Quotes! education under the regime of testing, all rhetorically framed within the metaphor of a game to be played and why is coastal lost. If the video game medium offers such insight into what makes The Wire an innovative and the giver quotes successful program, why wouldn’t Simon or other critics highlight this cross-media parallel as well as the dehumanization novel? One answer is obvious: it helps legitimize the show by comparing it to the highbrow, respectable literary form rather than the more derided and marginalized medium. And of course, I do believe that Simon and his cowriters do conceive of their practices as fitting with their conceptions of what the novel can do, with “the game” serving as mostly a metaphor for quotes, the desolate lives of their characters and institutions. But through my own little game here, reading The Wire for the anthology Third Person through the analytic lens of its previous game studies iteration of heat of propanol First Person , we can see both the possibilities and limitations of analyzing a text through the framework of what it is not. Ultimately, the best insights about the show can be found not by looking at it as either a novel or a game but in terms of the giver what it truly is: a masterful example of television storytelling. Placing The Wire in of combustion, the context of quotes television storytelling helps us understand why Simon felt compelled to frame his series as atypical of television beyond the heat of propanol implied cultural hierarchies.
On the show’s debut in 2002, television was in the midst of a distinctive shift in its storytelling strategies and the giver quotes possibilities, exploring a mode of narrative complexity that I have analyzed elsewhere (Mittell 2006). Define Dehumanization! Simon’s previous work in television was primarily on the NBC series Homicide: Life on the giver quotes the Street , which was based on his journalistic book; Homicide ’s producers were constantly battling network requests to make plots more conclusive and uplifting, adding hopeful resolution to use its bleak vision of urban murder. But in the decade between Homicide ’s 1993 premiere and The Wire ’s debut, many programs offered innovations in quotes, complex long-form television storytelling, including The X-Files , Buffy the Vampire Slayer , The West Wing , Alias , 24 , and most important for Simon’s own program, HBO’s critically acclaimed offerings of Oz , The Sopranos (1999-2007), and Six Feet Under (2001-2005) as well as his own miniseries The Corner . Thus, while Simon frames his series primarily in novelistic terms in opposition to his frustrations working on Homicide , there were many key televised precedents for long-form gradual storytelling for him to Essay Genocide draw on. The Wire does, of the giver course, draw on a number of televisual traditions, mostly in on Liberalism vs Conservatism and the of Lines, its position within genre categories. The police drama is an obvious link, but an quotes uncomfortable one; unlike nearly all cop shows, The Wire spends as much time focused on the criminals as the police, and as seasons progress, other civic institutions take over the dramatic center. The show belongs more to a nonexistent category of “urban drama,” documenting a city’s systemic decay; thematically, police dramas are nearly always about fighting the tide of decay, rather than contributing to its demise. In spirit, if not in execution, The Wire harks back to the critically hailed yet little seen social issue dramas of the early 1960s, like East Side/West Side and vs Conservatism of Lines The Defenders , but given the new industrial framework of premium cable television, The Wire can survive (if only barely) as a bleak social statement without reaching a mass audience - a luxury that its 1960s’ network counterparts could not afford.
What the show shares most directly with many cop show precedents is its focus on procedure. The Giver Quotes! Dragnet (1951-1970) pioneered the television cop show in the 1950s, inventing both the formal and cultural vocabulary of the police procedural. Of Job! Although it reads as a mannered caricature today, in its time Dragnet represented the height of gripping authenticity, offering viewers a gritty noir view into the underbelly of Los Angeles and the giver quotes a celebration of the Essay and the police who protect it. The show’s narrative scope focused on the functional machinery of the police world, presenting a form of the giver quotes “systemic realism” that sublimated character depth to institutional logic (Mittell 2004, 137). While Dragnet did distill the management larger institution into the giver the perspective of Detective Joe Friday and of job satisfaction his assorted partners, creator/producer/star Jack Webb designed the show for Friday to the giver quotes be viewed as “just one little cog in a great enforcement machine” (quoted in ibid., 126), and downplayed the character to generate a level of emotional engagement appropriate for a cog, redirecting viewer focus on to the minute details of police procedures. Define Dehumanization! The legacy of the giver quotes Dragnet ’s procedural tone lives on in the long-running Law and Order and why is coastal important CSI franchises, each of which offer just enough emotional investment in their institutional workers to engage viewers, but hook them with twisty mysteries each week to be solved by effective forensic detection or prosecution. The Wire manages to produce both emotional investment in the giver quotes, its characters and a detailed eye for procedures. Heat Of Combustion! The opening credits of each season typify the the giver show’s focus.
The characters are obscured and abstracted into Essay on Liberalism and the Blurring of Lines a series of the giver unit operations: close-ups of body parts, machinery, gestures, and icons of city life. What matters in the credits, and arguably the use series as a whole, is less who is doing the actions, but more the practices of institutional urban life themselves: the policing, drug slinging, political bribing, and quotes bureaucratic buck-passing that comprise the essence of the show’s portrait of Baltimore in decay. The Wire offers a veritable how-to lesson on Blurring the police procedures of wiretapping, waterfront tracking, and surveillance as well as the less sanctioned practices of drug distribution, smuggling, and bribery. A real New York drug ring even modeled their strategy of dumping cell phones after the the giver practices of Barksdale’s crew - a connection that police learned about while listening to dealers recap the previous episode via a wiretap (Rashbaum 2005). While traditional police procedurals have documented the practices of detection and prosecution as evidence of a functional and robust criminal justice system, The Wire ’s procedural detail shows official systems that cannot match the discipline, creativity, and use flexibility of quotes criminals, thereby offering a cynical vision of a police system playing out a losing hand. The show’s formal style supports its claims to authenticity. While it avoids Dragnet’s procedural voice-over narration, The Wire shares a similar commitment to underplaying drama, and allowing the on-screen dialogue and action to tell the story. The show refuses to use nondiegetic music except to conclude each season, and minimizes camera movement and flashy editing, allowing the performances and writing to tell the story with a naturalistic visual style.
Unlike many of its contemporary shows employing complex narrative strategies, The Wire avoids flashbacks, voice-overs, fantasy sequences, repetition from multiple perspectives, or reflexive commentaries on satisfaction the narrative form itself (see Mittell 2006). In terms of how the quotes show stylistically tells its story, The Wire appears more akin to conventional procedurals like Law and vs Conservatism Order than contemporary innovators like The Sopranos or 24, sharing a commitment to authenticity and realism typified by a minimized documentary-style aesthetic that Simon (2006) summarizes: “Less is the giver, more. Explaining everything to the slowest or laziest member of the audience destroys verisimilitude and reveals the Essay vs Conservatism and the of Lines movie itself, rather than the quotes reality that the movie is trying to convey.” While its attention to procedural details, authenticity, and verisimilitude might rival any show in television history, The Wire diverges from one defining attribute of the police procedural. Typically procedurals, whether focusing on police precincts, medical practices, or private detectives, are devoutly episodic in structure - each week, one or more cases gets discovered, processed, and resolved, rarely to reappear or even be remembered in subsequent episodes. On The Wire , cases last an entire season or beyond, and Essay on Liberalism vs Conservatism of Lines everything that happens is remembered with continuing repercussions throughout the storyworld - lessons are learned, grudges are deepened, and the stakes are raised. The show demands audiences to invest in their diegetic memories by rewarding detailed consumption with narrative payoffs; for instance, a first season bust of an aide to Senator Clay Davis adds little to that season’s arc, but it sets up a major plotline of the giver quotes seasons three and four. If Dragnet represents the prototype of the episodic procedural with hundreds of interchangeable episodes, The Wire is on the other end of television’s narrational spectrum, with each episode in the series demanding to be viewed in sequence and vs Conservatism Blurring of Lines strict continuity. Thus, The Wire functions as what might be television’s only example of the giver a serialized procedural.
Also debuting in 2002, The Shield blends the procedural with the serial by mixing ongoing conflicts into its focus on the workings of Essay a corrupt branch of the Los Angeles Police Department. The Shield , however, offers far more episodic closure than The Wire , with single cases introduced and the giver quotes resolved in most episodes - a plot convention that never occurs in The Wire . How does The Wire structure its balance between serial and episodic story lines? In many examples of television’s contemporary narrative complexity, individual episodes maintain a coherent and steady structure, even when they primarily function as part of a larger storytelling arc (Mittell 2006; Newman 2006). Individual episodes typically offer one self-contained plotline to be resolved while others function primarily within larger season arcs; for example, each episode of Veronica Mars typically introduces and resolves one new mystery, while longer character and investigative arcs proceed alongside that week’s self-contained plot. Other shows use structural devices to Essay on Liberalism vs Conservatism and the Blurring of Lines identify distinct episodes, such as Lost ’s designation of a specific character’s flashbacks each week or Six Feet Under ’s “death-of-the-week” structure. The Wire offers little episodic unity. Although each episode is quotes, certainly structured to themes in everyday use deliver narrative engagement and payoffs in specific beats and threads, it is hard to isolate any identifying characteristics of the giver quotes a single episode in the way that a show like The Sopranos has particular markers, such as “the college trip” or “the Russian in the woods.” In this way, The Wire does fit Simon’s novelistic ideals, as individual chapters are best viewed as parts of a cohesive whole and heat not as stand-alone entries. The Wire is therefore at quotes once one of television’s most serialized programs, yet also uniquely focused more on institutional procedures and Essay Genocide actions than character relationships and emotional struggles that typify most serialized dramas.
What are the impacts of the giver this unique narrative form of the serialized procedural, beyond just a formal innovation with its own pleasurable rewards? Dragnet and subsequent police procedurals represent law enforcement as an efficient machine - a perspective that the narrative form reinforces; by offering a weekly glimpse of how cases are solved and causes of job justice is the giver quotes, served, the genre supports an underlying ideology of support for the status quo to reassure viewers about causes of job satisfaction, a functional state system able to the giver quotes protect and serve. Even Homicide ’s cynical and downbeat vision of law enforcement offers resolution, if not reassurance, through its closed narrative structures. The stretch of themes in everyday Homicide episodes most resembling The Wire was probably the first season’s focus on the unsolved Adena Watson murder, a story line adapted directly from Simon’s book . On The Wire , the ongoing investigations rarely close and the giver quotes never resolve with any ideological certainties or reassurances, heroic victories or emotional releases. When McNulty allows his pride to swell in recognition that their detail is made up of elite “natural police,” Freamon knocks him down, pointing out that even if they do close a big case, there will be no “parade, a gold watch, a shining Jimmy McNulty Day moment” (3.9).
Even if a resolution to Essay about Genocide In Darfur a case arrives, the show refuses heroic closure or any sense of justice being served. By refusing ideological closure or easy answers to the giver quotes solving the complex systemic problems documented in The Wire , the heat of propanol show reminds us that in the end, it’s all just a game with another hand waiting to be played. The Wire ’s game logic returns to the fore here. Many of television’s complex narratives employ a puzzle structure to motivate viewer interest, inspiring fans to watch shows like Lost , Veronica Mars , and Heroes with a forensic eye for details to piece together the mysteries and enigmas encoded within their serial structures. Despite being centered on crimes and detectives, The Wire offers almost no mysteries. We typically know who the criminals are and what they did. Even though the second season begins with an unsolved murder of a shipping container full of Eastern European prostitutes, the whodunit is downplayed in the giver quotes, the narrative drive, with the final revelation becoming almost an afterthought as the focus is shifted to the larger systems of corruption, smuggling, and the disintegration of labor - the In Darfur only closure offered by discovering the name of the already-dead murderer is the ability to remove the “red names” from the board in the homicide squad room.
Instead of mysteries, the show’s narrative is focused on the game between competing systems, with suspense and quotes tension generated through anticipation of what procedures will pay off for each side, and how the various sides will end up before the next round is played. In season four, we watch in anticipation of the twists and turns it will take before the of combustion police discover the bodies entombed by Chris and Snoop as potential leads and connections are missed until chance encounters point Freamon toward the significance of a nailed-up board. The payoff is not justice being served, as the case remains unsolved at the season’s end, but the procedural journey toward the the giver discovery. The cultural logic of traditional mysteries is based on Essay Genocide In Darfur a belief in functional institutions of justice being able to solve and punish crime; in The Wire ’s cynical vision, mysteries are only obstacles to improving clearance rates for the giver quotes, homicide detectives or disruptions in the functioning machinery of Essay a criminal operation. This procedural focus of The Wire can be viewed as tied not only to the giver quotes television traditions but also to the mechanics of gameplay. Within the Essay and the Blurring of Lines world of game studies, the term procedural conjures far different connotations than Dragnet and CSI . Some game scholars see procedural authorship as the essence of coding gameplay or “procedural narrative,” outlining the unit operations that render the storyworld and enable player agency (Mateas and quotes Stern 2007). In Everyday Use! For Murray (1997, 274), the procedural nature of games and digital narrative is unique in “its ability to capture experience as systems of interrelated actions” - a description seemingly capturing The Wire ’s narrative mode. Bogost (2006, 46) builds on Murray’s model to quotes extend a critical eye to “both technology-based and non-technologically based works from the single perspective of their shared procedurality.” Although The Wire ’s procedural language is not written in satisfaction, binary, each Baltimore institution has an the giver underlying code, from the rules of the drug game’s parlay to In Darfur the racial rotation in electing union leaders. The series frequently highlights what happens when conflicting codes overlap, as with Bell’s attempt to the giver quotes bring Robert’s Rules of Order to the meetings of drug dealers, or Colvin’s detente in the drug war to create Hamsterdam; such procedural conflicts trigger the complex social simulation needed to Genocide represent the urban environment as “systems of interrelated actions.” In both The Wire and the realm of digital games, procedures are the essential building blocks of the giver narrative, character, and rhetoric, the actions that are undertaken within the parameters of the simulation, the rules of the game. Ultimately it is through its focus on heat of combustion of propanol procedure, at the levels of action, play, and code, that The Wire generates its verisimilitude, creating a ludic engagement with the the giver SimCity of twenty-first-century Baltimore. HBO brands its offerings as “not TV,” and in some ways The Wire delivers, supplying a mode of In Darfur storytelling previously untried on commercial U.S. television, with a tone and outlook antithetical to the medium’s perceived cultural role as a consensus-building vehicle for selling products and ideologies.
But in the giver quotes, its innovation, The Wire does reframe what television can do, and how stories can be told. Of Lines! Perhaps inspired by the novel but referencing the cultural logic of games, the show presents a new model of serial procedurality that offers a probing social investigation of the urban condition. And as the players remind us, “it’s all in the game.” Bogost, Ian (2006). Unit Operations: An Approach to Videogame Criticism . Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mateas, Michael, and Andrew Stern (2007). “Writing Facade: A Case Study in Procedural Authorship.” In Second Person: Role-Playing and Story in Games and Playable Media , edited by quotes Pat Harrigan and define Noah Wardrip-Fruin, 183-207. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Mittell, Jason (2004). Genre and the giver Television: From Cop Shows to Cartoons in American Culture . New York: Routledge. Mittell, Jason (2006). “Narrative Complexity in Contemporary American Television.” Velvet Light Trap 58:29-40.
Moulthrop, Stuart (2004). “From Work to define Play: Molecular Culture in the Time of Deadly Games.” In First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game , edited by Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan, 56-69. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Murray, Janet H. (1997). Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of the giver Narrative in Cyberspace . New York: Free Press. Newman, Michael Z. (2006). “From Beats to Arcs: Toward a Poetics of Television Narrative.” Velvet Light Trap 58:16-28. Rashbaum, William K. (2005). “Police Say a Queens Drug Ring Watched Too Much Television.” New York Times , January 15. Simon, David (2006). “ The Wire on why is coastal management HBO: Play or Get Played | Exclusive QA with David Simon.” August 16. http://members.aol.com/TheWireHBO/exclusive-1.html.
Zimmerman, Eric (2004). “Narrative, Interactivity, Play, and Games: Four Naughty Concepts in Need of Discipline.” In First Person: New Media as Story, Performance, and Game , edited by Noah Wardrip-Fruin and Pat Harrigan, 154-164. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Zurawik, David (2006). “David Simon Has Novel Ideas about Wire.” Baltimore Sun , September 10. SimCity . Will Wright; Maxis. 1989. The Sims . Will Wright; Maxis. 2000. Dragnet (1951-1970).
NBC. Creator Jack Webb. Six Feet Under (2001-2005). HBO. Creator Alan Ball. The Sopranos (1999-2007). HBO. Creator David Chase.
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Employee Engagement, Exploring Its Relationship With Career Development And Employee Retention. Employee engagement ' exploring its relationship with career development and employee retention. Key words: employee engagement, career development, retention. A paradigm shift has happened in the viewpoints of management towards employees. The Giver Quotes. Earlier employees were considered as those who are needed just to fulfill the needs and demands of customers. But new management school of thought perceives and practice the viewpoint of 'employees first and on Liberalism vs Conservatism of Lines, customers second'. Modern managers propagate that 'our people are our most important asset'. The Giver. Employee engagement is the Essay and the of Lines strategy through which organizations want to the giver quotes, implement this thought. Organizations have come to management important, realize that in quotes today's constantly changing business scenario, the most valuable resource that needs to be leveraged is human resource.
This means not just attracting the cr??me-de-la-cr??me and retaining them but keeping them motivated and committed to Essay, achieving the organization goals. Engagement is the giver quotes, a combination of an attitude and behavior, the attitude is 'commitment' and behavior is 'action to cooperate or going the extra mile' (ACAS, 2010, Policy Decision Paper). It was identified that engaged employees are more productive than their disengaged peers. Unengaged employees tend to concentrate on of propanol, task rather than on the giver, the goals and dehumanization, outcomes they are expected to accomplish. They are concerned only about finishing their work and are not concerned about improvements. Unengaged employees are found to feel that their contributions are being overlooked and their potential is not being tapped. They see negativity at the giver quotes every opportunity and undermine the accomplishment of the engaged coworkers. In contrast an engaged employee is heat of propanol, one who is fully involved in and enthusiastic about his or her work and thus will act in ways that fulfill the organization's interest. Schmidt et al. (1993) has defined engagement as 'an employee's involvement with, commitment to the giver quotes, and satisfaction with work'. The Hay Group defines engaged performance as 'a result that is achieved by stimulating employees' enthusiasm for their work and Essay on Liberalism and the Blurring, directing it toward organization success. This result can only be achieved when employers offer an implicit contract to their employees that elicits specific positive behaviours aligned with organization's goals. The Giver Quotes. ' Lanphear defines Employee Engagement as 'the bond employees have with their organization' Lanphear further espouses that 'when employees really care about the business, they are more likely to go the extra mile.'
It was found that employees who are engaged show a positive attitude towards the organization and express an obligation to remain with the organization. Employee engagement determines the level of commitment and define dehumanization, involvement an employee has towards his/ her organization and the giver quotes, its values. Highly engaged employee's works hand in Blurring hand with their colleagues to increase performance within the job, for the benefit of the organization. Quotes. Employee engagement thus acts a barometer that measure extend of association and emotional bonding between employee and of job, organization and determine job satisfaction and job contribution of the employee. Today's employees are more informed and showcase high willingness to work provided they are given learning opportunities. Personal growth, opportunities to learn and explore is becoming a primary driver. Quotes. Catering to the changing needs to foster engaged employees is the need of the hour.
Review of Literature. Significant correlation was found between employee engagement and desirable business outcomes such as retention of Essay Genocide In Darfur talent, customer service, industrial performance, team performance, business unit productivity and even enterprise level financial performance (Rucci et al, 1998). Organizations with high employee engagement show higher revenues and profits than those with lower engagement levels (Neti, Vipparthi, Raulapati, 2011) . The Giver. In 2005, Towers Perrin Survey found that companies with higher employee engagement had up to 19% higher operating margin, net profit margin, revenue growth and up to 25% greater earnings per share than companies with low employee engagement ((Neti, Vipparthi, Raulapati, 2011). Full engagement represents an alignment of maximum job satisfaction with maximum job contribution. By observing engagement against these two factors allows organizations to ensure that productivity gains are sustainable in the long-term. According to Rees et al (2009) engaged employees perform better than others, take less sick leave and are less likely to leave their employer.
Low level of define engagement was found to be more among those employees who perceived unfairness in quotes rewards and who believed that they are stuck in their job with no growth opportunities (John, 2010, Acas Policy, Discussion paper) The highly productive companies across the world have understood the fact that it was employee engagement that made them different from other companies. Use. Different companies had taken different initiatives to enhance the level of engagement among employees towards their jobs and quotes, the organization. As it is an of combustion of propanol, established fact that there is a clear link between organizational performance and employee engagement, every organization seeking sustenance need to design and implement a customized process to increase the levels of employee engagement. The Giver. The following are a few basic steps in themes this process based on the best industry practices. Process of the giver Employee Engagement (K .Sirisha, 2013) 2. Employee Engagement Survey: Design the of job satisfaction questions of the employee engagement survey depending upon the comfort and understanding level of the employees. 3. Result Analysis: analyze the data to find out what exactly motivates employees to perform their best and quotes, what actually disengages them and finally compels them to leave the organization. Dehumanization. The results and information can then be delivered through presentations.
4. Action Planning: 'How to turn the results of the survey in to an action' is a challenging question that organizations need to deal with the utmost care. Coaching of line managers as well as HR professionals is very important in order to tell them how to take appropriate actions to engage employees. They should also be told about the giver quotes dos and don'ts so that they can successfully implement the changes. 5. Action Follow-up: Action follow up is necessary in order to find out themes in everyday use if the action has been taken in the right direction or not and if it is producing the desired results. Career development and Employee engagement. Organizations with high levels of engagement provide employees with opportunities to develop their abilities, learn new skills, acquire new knowledge and the giver, realize their potential.
When companies plan for the career paths of their employees and invest in tem employees in In Darfur turn will contribute back with high productivity and quotes, organization commitment. Define. Career development influences engagement for employees and retaining the most talented employees and providing opportunities for personal development. Employee engagement and retention. If was found that engaged employees are less likely to leave their job. If an employee has no emotional commitment to their job, there is a greater chance that they will leave to pursue a job that offers, for example, higher remuneration or more flexible work conditions (Haid Sims, 2009; Schaufeli Bakker, 2004). Research confirms that engagement lowers employees' intention to leave. The Corporate Leadership Council (2004) found that the most engaged employees are 87% less likely to leave their organization. The same study found that the 100 best places to the giver quotes, work (according to their research) had an average voluntary turnover rate of 13% as compared with the average of 28.5% of other businesses in the same industries. What's more, other large scale research has found that 12% of Essay about Genocide In Darfur disengaged employees have no intention to leave, while that proportion rises to 66% in the giver quotes engaged employees. Of Combustion Of Propanol. Similarly, over half of disengaged employees would consider leaving their current job for another opportunity, while only 25% of highly engaged employees would consider leaving. (Towers Perrin, 2003).
Corporate Leadership Council report (2008) the highly engaged organizations have the potential to reduce the staff turnover by 87%, the disengaged are four times more likely leave organization than average employees. It was observed that the employee retention can be improved by improving employee engagement. Considering that replacing an employee can cost one and a half times their salary, retention has a significant impact on the giver quotes, an organization's overall profit. Not only can the dehumanization costs of replacing employees be a trench on quotes, resources, but once new employees are in place they can take several years to generate the same revenue. Objective of the study was to find out the relationship between employee engagement and employee retention and career development. From the causes of job satisfaction literature review is was found that career development was found to quotes, be factor improving employee engement and employee engagement in turn increases employee retention. The study was conducted among employees working in media sector, a sector known for high employee turnover.
The study was conducted among the management important employees of one of the leading Indian daily newspaper which has introduced employee engagement activities to motivate the employees and hence increasing their commitment towards the organization. The data was collected from the giver, 276employees working across different departments of the company. Gallup 12 questionnaire was used for collecting the data. The data analysis shows that the Employees working with the of job satisfaction company was found to be have high employee engagement level. One sample't' test was conducted on the responses (with test value '4' assigned to the response 'agree') given by respondents. t value 2.346 which is not significant at quotes 0.05 level shows that the mean (4.0439) of the responses did not differ significantly from the test value. High significance value (typically above 0.05) indicates that there is themes in everyday use, no significant difference between the test value and the giver quotes, the observed mean.
Which proves that employees were showcasing high employee engagement. Table 1. One-Sample Statistics. N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean. Employee engagement 276 4.0439 .31058 .01869.
Table 2. One-Sample Test. t df Sig. Why Is Coastal. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference. Employee engagement 2.346 275 .020 .04386 .0071 .0807. Then the relationship was analyzed between career development opportunities provided by the organization and the level of engagement that the employees are feeling with company. Table 3. Descriptive Statistics. Mean Std. Deviation N.
Employee engagement 4.0439 .31058 276. Opportunity for career development 4.3225 .87032 276. Table 4. Correlation between employee engagement and career development. Employee engagement Opportunity for career development. Employee engagement Pearson Correlation 1 .634** Sig. (2-tailed) .000. Opportunity for career development Pearson Correlation .634** 1. Sig. (2-tailed) .000.
**. Correlation is the giver, significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). From Table 4. It can be inferred that there is high correlation between career development opportunities provided by the organization and of propanol, employee engagement. The Giver. Correlation value was found to be .634 which was highly significant at Genocide 0.01 significance level. It was also observed that the level of the giver support provided by why is coastal management important, the immediate supervisor for employee development also enhances overall employee engagement. Second objective of the study was to find out the relationship between employee engagement level and the giver, their intention to remain with the organization. The relationship was found using Pearson correlation. Table 5. Descriptive Statistics.
Mean Std. Deviation N. Employee retention 3.9674 .24648 276. Employee engagement 4.0439 .31058 276. Table 6. Correlation between employee retention and employee engagement. Employee retention Employee engagement. Employee retention Pearson Correlation 1 .379**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000. Employee engagement Pearson Correlation .379** 1. Sig. (2-tailed) .000. **. Why Is Coastal Management Important. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Table 6 shows that there is high correlation between employee retention and employee engagement. Correlation value .379 was found to be highly significant at quotes 0.01 significance level.
The can be inferred that career development opportunities and employee engagement activities provided by define dehumanization, the organaotion is motivating the employees to remain with the organization for a longer tenure and employees were also found to be seeing their growth with organization. When most of the the giver quotes organizations are focusing on growth and profitability the essential element that they miss out is the need to retain the existing talent pool. It was observed that employees were leaving the organization irrespective of the financial compensation that was offered to them. Define Dehumanization. Diagnosis was done to find out the reason for the same using exit interview and expert advice of change agents and as a part of organization reengineering the company came up with different employee engagement and career development activities. Quotes. The study result shows that the new human resource strategy adopted by the company was effective to develop a positive intention in the mind of the employees to remain with the organization. The study gives the inference that the organaotion should carry forward with their effort to develop the feeling of themes in everyday use oneness in the giver quotes the mind of the employees about the company, which will increase not only their productivity but the organaotion will be able to retain its talented and define dehumanization, trained employees with the the giver quotes organization. Corporate Leadership Council, Improving employee performance in economic downtime, 2007, (Corporate Executive board, Washington, DC). Use. Deovsek,D., Creating highly engaged and committed employees starts at quotes the top and ends at the bottom line, Credit union national Association inc, May2008. Haid, M. Heat Of Propanol. Sims, J. (2009). Employee Engagement: Maximising Organisational Performance.
Right Management. Retrieved 15 June 2011, from quotes, http://www.right.com/thought-leadership/research. John Purcell,(2010) Acas Policy Discussion paper, Acas Strategy Unit www.acas.org.uk/index.aspx?articleid=2390. K .Sirisha (2013) A Study On Employee Engagement At Hyderabad- LT Infocity, Journal of Business Management Social Sciences Research ISSN No: 2319-5614 Volume 2, No.9, September 2013. Rees, C., Alfers, K., Gatenby, M., Soane, E. and Truss, K. In Everyday Use. (2009) 'Work organisation, employee voice and engagement: exploring connections'. Paper given at quotes the British Universities Industrial Relations Association Annual Conference, Cardiff July 2009.
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Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: a multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293-315. Towers Perrin (2003). Working Today: Understanding What Drives Employee Engagement. The 2003 Towers Perrin Talent Report. Retrieved 15 June 2011, from http://www.towersperrin.com/tp/getwebcachedoc?webc=hrs/usa/2003/200309/talent_2003.pdf.
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